MGT115 – Management and Organization
Tutorial 1 – Answers
1.1. Who are Managers?
a) Explain how managers differ from non-managerial employees?
A – Managers differ from non-managerial employees in the sense that they are responsible for coordinating and overseeing the work of their subordinates (who maybe non-managerial or managerial) so as to ensure the organizational goals are met. Non-managerial employees however are only responsible for the task(s) assigned to them.
b) Describe how to classify managers in organizations.
A – Managers can be classified in to
* First-line managers: - Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees
* Middle managers: - ...view middle of the document...
A – They are: -
* Interpersonal roles: - Figurehead, leader, liaison.
* Informational roles: - Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
* Decisional roles: - Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator.
c) Describe Katz’s three essential managerial skills and how the importance of these skills changes depending on managerial level.
A – The three essential managerial skills are: -
* Technical skills: - Knowledge and proficiency in a particular field.
* Human skills: - The ability to work well with other people.
* Conceptual skills: - The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization.
Those 3 managerial skills are used by different managers. Top manager needs to have more conceptual skill than technical skill. They have to think about the future of the company (goal and objectives). Any small activities that support to achieve the goal and objectives are done by their employee. Top managers always think about the life of the business.
Middle manager is doing more in the interpersonal skill. They have to meet many people, so they need interpersonal skill to communicate with people. Example: negotiators.
The last one is Lower manager which need technical skill in their job. The lower manager are dealing with small activities that may lead to achieve the goal and objectives.
These 3 managers must have a good relationship each other, so that the objective and goal can be achieved.
d) Discuss the changes that are impacting managers’ jobs.
A – They are: -
* The increasing importance of customers: - They are the reason why companies exist.
* Innovation: - Doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks.
e) Explain why customer service and innovation are important to the managers’ jobs.
A – Because consistent high quality customer service is essential for survival and managers should encourage employees to be aware of and act on opportunities for innovation so as to improve effectiveness and efficiency.
1.4. What is an Organization?
a) Describe the characteristics of an organization.
A – Common characteristics of an organization are: -
* Have a distinct purpose (goal)
* Composed of people
* Have a deliberate structure
b) Explain how the concept of an organization is changing.
Traditional Organizations | Contemporary Organizations |
Stable | Dynamic |
Inflexible | Flexible |
Job-focused | Skills-focused |
Work is defined by job position | Work is defined in terms of tasks to be done |
Individual-oriented | Team-oriented |
Permanent jobs | Temporary jobs |
Command-oriented | Involvement-oriented |
Managers always make decisions | Employees participate in decision making |
Rule-oriented | Customer-oriented |
Relatively homogenous workforce | Diverse workforce |
Workdays defined as 9 to 5 | Workdays have no time boundaries |