Malignant Tumor in men (prostate cancer)
Prostate Cancer is a malignancy of the prostate gland, a walnut-sized organ located under the bladder in males. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis. The American Cancer Society estimates that 317,100 new cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed annually in the United States and that 41,400 men die from the disease each year. It is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer in American men. The specific causes and development of prostate cancer are still unknown, but several risk factors for the disease are known. The older you are, the higher chance of getting ...view middle of the document...
Environmental factors, such as workplace exposures to cadmium, have also been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Family history plays another important role. Men whose fathers or brothers develop prostate cancer are more likely to develop the disease. Researchers are beginning to identify genetic markers of prostate cancer. For instance, hereditary prostate cancer (HPC1), a gene detected in 1996, appears to significantly predispose men to prostate cancer when inherited in a mutated form.
Some common symptoms of prostate cancer include weak or interrupted flow of urine, urinating often (especially at night), difficulty urinating, pain or burning from urinating, blood in the urine, and nagging pain in the back, hips, or pelvis. Often, there are no early symptoms of prostate cancer. Once cancer of the prostate has been found, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread from the prostate to tissues around it, or to other parts of the body. This is called “staging.”
It is very important to know the stage if the disease to plan for the treatment. The following stages are used for prostate cancer.
Stage 1: Prostate cancer at this stage cannot be felt and causes no symptoms. The cancer is only in the prostate and usually is found accidentally when surgery is done for other reasons, such as BPH. Cancer cells may be found in one, or many areas of the prostate.
Stage II: The tumor may be shown by a blood test or felt in the areas of the prostate during rectal exam, but the cancer cells are only in the prostate gland.
Stage III Cancer cells have spread outside the covering (capsule) of the prostate to tissues surrounding it. The seminal vesicles may also have cancer in them.
Stage IV Cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other organs and tissues, such as the liver or lungs. Prostate staging can also be described using T (tumor size), N (extent of spread to lymph nodes), and M (extent of spread to other parts of the body).
Three kinds of treatments for prostate cancer that are commonly used are Surgery (taking out the cancer), radiation therapy (using high dose x-rays or other high energy rays to kill cancer cells), and hormone therapy (using hormones to stop cancer cells from growing). Surgery is the most common of the three treatments. The cancer may be removed by either radical prostatectomy, transurethral resection, or cryosurgery (removing the cancer by freezing it). Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate and some of the tissues that surround it. This surgery may be done by cutting into the space between the scrotum and the anus in an operation called a perneal prostatectomy, or by cutting into the lower abdomen in an operation called a retropubic prostatectomy. Radical prostatectomy is done only if the cancer has not spread outside the prostate. Often, a surgery to remove the lymph...