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Major Neurotransmitters Essay

518 words - 3 pages

Major Neurotransmitters

Major Neurotransmitters
While there are many, possibly more than fifty neurotransmitters already discovered by scientists, they have all been grouped into four major groups, they are acetylcholine, amino acids, monoamines, and neuropeptides. Neurotransmitters are chemicals inside the brain that communicate throughout the entire human brain and body. They relay signals between neurons, or nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are used by the brain to tell your body to do everything it does. They tell your heart to beat and your lungs to breathe. They can control your sleep, hunger and mood. It is possible to have an unbalanced or low level of certain neurotransmitters which will cause the human body to act in a vast variety of ways. There are many thing that can also effect why these neurotransmitters are not ...view middle of the document...

Dopamine, nor epinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin are also biogenic amines. The use of biogenic amine, dopamine, is seen in treatments for schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Either by increasing or decreasing the amount of dopamine can be used in replacement therapy to help treat these diseases.
There are also amino acid neurotransmitters. GABA is a common inhibitory transmitter. Valium and Xanax are substances that stimulate GABA receptors and are used as anti-anxiety treatments. Huntington’s disease is a disease in which GABA neurons are destroyed in the motor system. A indicator of Huntington’s disease is involuntary movements. “GABA is the principal inhibitory transmitter in the brain exerting a direct depressant affect on neurons by hyperpolarization and reducing the release of other transmitters” ( Perry, 2002).
The peptide neurotransmitters include endorphins. We can relate these to opiates such as morphine and heroin. They are neurotransmitters with opiate like properties, that are naturally made by our bodies. Also involved here are pain perceivers and hunger control. Peptide neurotransmitters are ties to hormones and there implications.
When neurotransmitters are not correctly receiving or relaying messages there can be any number of problems ranging from schizophrenia to pain perception issues to uncontrollable muscle movements and emotional instabilities. Controlling some of these issues can be introducing a drug that is similar to what the body makes and uses naturally.

"Neurotransmitters." The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. Hoboken: Wiley, 2004. Credo Reference. 29 Mar. 2004. Web. 9 Jan. 2012.

Perry, E. Aston, H. Young, A. (2002). Neurochemistry of Consciousness. Neurotransmitters in Mind. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Retrieved from Ashford University Library: ters

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