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Lung Cancer Essay

1420 words - 6 pages

Lung cancer is the second most spread cancer among women and men after skin cancer. Statics from American Cancer Society shows that 224.210 cases of lung cancer were observed in 2014 among them 116.000 cases in men and 108.210 in women. Lung cancer causes 159.260 deaths in 2014. Older people are in higher risk, 2 out of 3 people who have lung cancer are 65 years old or older than 65. The average age of people diagnosed with lung cancer is 70. Only 2 % of lung cancer cases were in people younger than 45. For man the possibility of lung cancer development is 1 in 13 and for women is 1 in 16. This statistic includes both smokers and non-smokers. The highest risk for lung cancer development has ...view middle of the document...

They differ in cancer cell size and the way of treatment. Among all lung cancer non- small lung cancer is the most common one -80-90%. NSCLC divided into 3 subtypes. Squamous cell carcinoma affect squamous cells in the lungs airways. These are flat cells that make an internal layer of the airways. This subtype leads to 20-30% of the NSCLC. Adenocarcinoma affects cells that secrete mucus and peripheral lung tissues. Approximately 40% of lung cancer is adenocarcinoma. Women have higher predisposition to this lung cancer. Large cell carcinoma occur in any parts of the lung and it has tendency to fast growing and spread, that`s why it is harder to treat. It is less spread 10-15% of lung cancer is large cell carcinoma. Pathobiology of NSCLC shows that mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are similar in all patients with NSCLC. EGFR is the receptor of the cell surface from the family of the epidermal growth factor. Specific ligands such as epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor activate EGFR through binding. EGFR plays an important role in cell functioning as control and regulate cell division, angiogenesis, apoptosis and tumor invasion. (Maurie Markman,2014)

Mutations in EGFR provoke its activation that lead to the abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. ALK is an enzymes of the cell that encoded by ALK gene.ALK gene can be oncogenic by forming a fusion with other genes. For example, echinoderm microtubule- associatedprotein like-4 (EML4) gene and ALK fusion is related with 3-5% of NSCLC cases, mostly of adenocarcinoma. (Maurie Markman,2014)
K-ras proto-oncogene mutations connect with 10-30 % of adenocarcinomas. K-ras proto-oncogene plays the role of tumor suppressor. MAX gene activation observed in small cells lung cancer. This is gene that encodes oncoprotein myc-assosiated X protein (Myc) that involve in cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Transcription activator BRG1 protein mutations related to lung cancer. Epigenetic changes connected with lung cancer are alteration of micro RNA regulation, DNA methylation and histone tail modification. All these changes damage tumor suppressor genes functioning. For example, in all lung cancer tumors found damaged p53 gene that is tumor suppressor and it controls cell cycle and apoptosis. Small cells lung cancer is quite uncommon and usually it develops only in active smokers. SCLC appears in the bronchi and then spreads throughout the lungs. Also other tumor can develop in lungs such as lung carcinoid tumor that is slow growing tumor that can be removed by surgery. (Romero OA,2013)

Diagnostic of lung cancer may include such tests as imaging tests, X-ray image of the lungs can help to detect abnormal mass or nodule; sputum cytology include sputum microscopic analysis for presence of cancer cells; tissue sample or biopsy it is analysis of tissue that contain abnormal cells; positron emission...

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