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# Logic Study Guide Essay

1549 words - 7 pages

Valid deductive argument: an argument in which assuming the premises are true, it is impossible for the the conclusion to be false, conclusion necessarily follows the premises. Invalid Deductive argument: argument in which the premises are true, it is possible for the argument to be false, conclusion doesn’t necessarily follow the premises. Sound Argument: When an argument is shown to be valid and all premises are true then it is sound. Unsound argument: when an argument is invalid or at least one of a valid arguments premises are false. Cogent Argument: An inductive argument is cogent when the argument is strong and the premises are true. Uncogent: an argument is un-cogent if either the ...view middle of the document...

Contraries: pairs of props that cannot both be true at the same time but can both be false “A and E props. Sub-contraries: cannot both be false at the same time but can both be true. I and O props. Subalternation: Essentially the relationship between a particular and universal A and I as well as E and O. the universal dominates the particular if it is true then the particular is true. If it is false however, the particular could be either true or false. On the other hand, if the Particular is True then the universal can be either true or false. If however the particular is false, the Universal must be false as well. Abduction: inferring explanations for certain facts. The car crashed so the driver must be bad. Inferences can be different however. The car crashed so the road was bad. Argument Identification: Arguments must have a conclusion and statements that support that specific conclusion there must also be some form of inferential claim. Given the premise the conclusion should follow. opinion does not support conclusion as it is not absolute meaning its truth value cannot be determined. It may be true for you but for someone else it is not. Conclusion Indicators: Precede the conclusion; therefore, thus, so, hence, consequently, in conclusion, it follows that, we can infer that, it proves that, suggests that, implies that, we can conclude that. Premise indicators: Because, since, Given that, assuming that, As shown by, for the reasons that, as indicated by, the fact that, it follows from. Translation into standard categorical form: when translating ordinary language into categorical propositions always make sure that the statement contains nouns that denote a class in both the subject and predicate. i.e. some political parties are disorganized groups is not a standard form cat. prop. when you switch it, there is no second group to denote a B. “some disorganized are political parties” instead give it a noun some disorganized groups are political parties, some political parties are disorganized groups. This functions as a some A are B (I prop). Also, sometimes when translating short or unclear sentences there is no linking verb (are, are not) that being said you must create specific groups as well as generate the verb that is implied (no pain, no gain) no exercises without physical pain are exercises that offer physical gain . More examples of translation: Leo was ill last night --- all persons identical to leo are persons who were ill last night. Whenever you are audited by the IRS you should get help----- all times you are audited by the IRS are times that you should get help. What goes around comes around---- all things that go around are things that come around. Standard form negations: when you hear statements such as all athletes are slow people, you can negate it by saying it is false that… or some other form of negation. basically, since it is the negation of an A, it gets translated as an O meaning some athletes are not people that are...

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