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Literature Review Of Sustainable Tourism

1686 words - 7 pages

Introduction
During the second half of the twentieth century, tourism industries become an integral part of the country economy growth. One of the earliest tourism was mass tourism; this kind of tourism did not take fully ‘sustainability’ into account. After several years, most of the countries realised that they are facing problems and issues associated with tourism industry (by the tourist and tourism entrepreneurs) either on the country’s economics, social and environment i.e. impacts that can be positive and negative. Due to this, new form of tourism emerged – sustainable tourism, as an alternative to the classic mass tourism.

Concepts of Sustainability Tourism: Ecotourism
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One of the essential key features of sustainable tourism is making optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.

Ecotourism is a segment form of sustainable tourism - all forms of tourism can become more sustainable but not all forms of tourism can be ecotourism.

"Ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy, study and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features - both past and present), that promotes conservation, has low visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations". (IUCN, 1996)

Ecotourism operates differently from other form of tourism industry, because it involves conserving natural areas, educating visitors about sustainability and beneficiating the local people. Most of the ecotourist are attracted in pristine areas and in the wilderness settings. However, it is crucial to implement proper planning and management to ecotourism’s development, or else it will threaten the biological upon which it depends and the tourism becomes overwhelming; mass tourism.

‘Ecotourism System’
According to some scholars, there are various stakeholders or actors involve ensuring ecotourism meets the criteria of sustainable tourism. The stakeholders are 1) Tourists; 2) Natural areas and their managers, including both public and private areas; 3) Business practitioners including various combination of local business, in-bound, outbound operators, hotel and other accommodation providers, restaurants and so on; 4) Non-government organization, such as environmental and rural-development NGO.

Today, many responsible business practitioners are working successfully around the globe to create well-planned kind of sustainable tourism. Theses business practitioners can be local or international, and range from seasonal community-run and family operations to medium –scale outbound operators to medium-scale outbound operators.

However, most countries probably have more tour operators that do not follow responsible guidelines than those that do. Additionally, tour operators have been hesitant to develop their own reporting systems, making it difficult to statistically document ecotourism’s overall performance. One of the issues that could associate with ecotourism is ‘greenwashing’. This is due to there been no universally accepted and adopted certification program for ecotourism, tour operator may market their tourism as ‘ecotourism’ while in reality they are ‘greenwashing’. Greenwasher are dishonest tourism operators who embrace ecotourism as new marketing strategy.

Hence, the government and Non-government organization should work hand in hand in monitoring practices; omit such greenwasher tour operators and control the number of tourism entering the country...

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