In the of education the 1980s will strand as the decade during which countries throughout the world introduce computers in education on a large scale, the first stage of a technological innovation which is unprecedented in its scope (Plomp et al 1996,p.1). Tjeerd Plomp’s introduction to one of the largest cross-national reviews of ICT in education carries an historical viewpoint as well as a judgement. The historical viewpoint identified the 1980s as the decade in which mainframe computers were supplanted by personal computers on business desks and in home, also making them immediately accessible to school and classroom. It remains to be seen if his judgement was accurate about this being the first stage of highly significant technological innovation in education.
The focus of this literature review is to examine the background of ICT in school, and to see what models of stages of development have been developed and ...view middle of the document...
The final section includes some other relevant factors influencing the use of ICT in schools.
This reviews examine current argument and debates concerning the impact, real and imagined, of the new information and communication technology in developing society, in particular Africa.
Given the rapid changes in the nature and structure of the ICT as well as the claims and counter claims about the impact of ICT in the education level in Ghana and Africa as a whole.
Do ICT allows them to empower themselves without having to lose their unique cultures, that is, without having to develop? Indeed, are the new technologies appropriate for the development of the traditional societies? Do they (ICTs) fit the local indigenous cultures? In essence, will the new ICT launch these societies and communities thereof on the part of education development or will they subject them to further dependence? For example, it has often been argued that, without successful adoption and implementation of the new ICT in the developing world, future generations in these societies will further lag behind. However, research is yet to inform on the problems and opportunities of ICT adoption. These questions are examined in this review essay. The emergence of the new information and communication technologies (ICTs)—examples include the internet, computer, interactive, multimedia system and digital telecommunication as dramatically altered and theoretical and practical assumption about the role of communication technologies in development. Today, the role of ICT in developed and developing societies have become the subject of academic focus and research, regional and international seminars and conferences. As the new millennium approaches and as we content with the expanded uses of the information super high way, the interface between communication and development calls for serious reconsideration. While advocates are hopeful that the new technologies would provide urgent solutions to present and future problems, pessimists disagree, pointing to dangers and pitfalls of the new communication technologies.
A PILOT STUDY
By Levi Obijiofor and Sohail
Inayatullah with Tony Stevenson