Effects of Broken Family to the Adolescent
In this regard, Sherman (1983) conducted a comprehensive review of the early literature on the psychosocial correlates of adolescent substance abuse. He concluded that:
The majority of research studies supported the traditional view of the adolescent substance abuser as rebellious, lacking in self-esteem, having a low sense of psychological well-being, poor academic performance, low religiosity, a broken family, anxiety, alienation, and maladjustment. (p. 134)
This section of the presented review of the literature indicated that there is a clear and direct correlation between adolescent substance abuse and parental divorce with the ...view middle of the document...
For example, success will be facilitated or impaired depending pon such factors as the extent to which treatment philosophy is based on adult rather than adolescent models of treatment, the degree to which services offered are overly restrictive of youth or too stereotyped in the view of youth offered.
Multisystemic therapy which is defined as child-focused and family-centered with interventions targeting not only the teen but also peers, family, school and community is another type of substance abuse treatment used with adolescents. Multisystemic therapy includes but is not limited to family therapy; in other words, family therapy is only one component of a much broader intervention program.
Henggeler, Schoenwald, Pickrel and Rowland (1994) conducted a comprehensive review of evaluative studies of multisystemic therapy (MST), for treating serious substance abuse problems in adolescents and their multi-need families. Their review of outcome studies indicated fairly good success levels for this type of intervention. Success was said to be primarily due to the fact that the focus of treatment is upon the multiple determinants of substance abuse and their adherence to the family preservation model of service delivery.
All of the methods of intervention reviewed consisted of more or less standard approaches to treatment. However, there are some alternative or non-standard interventions to the problem of substance abuse of adolescents. One of these has been discussed by Sharma, Dillbeck and Dillbeck (1994) who proposed a treatment program whose purpose would be to provide a holistic, natural approach. This program stresses the enhancement of protective positive inner resources through the use of meditation. According to the authors, meditation has the capability of reducing the kind of psychological distress and physiological imbalance that cause adolescents to use/abuse drugs.
The specific program proposed includes twice-daily use of Transcendental Meditation as well as nutritional focus. Containing both family and individual components, other elements of the recommended program would include daily afternoon sessions to ensure regularity and maximum benefit, a weekly treatment/class meeting for youth to understand their own experience of developing consciousness, and parental and peer participation.
While there have been virtually no evaluative studies conducted to determine the efficacy of a mediational program on remediate substance abuse in adolescents from divorced families, there has been some research on behavior modification programs emphasizing relaxation. Since such programs are at least somewhat similar in focus to mediational interventions, it is helpful to examine the findings of evaluative studies of these relaxation programs.
Parental relationships, autonomy, and identity processes of high school students
There continues to be controversy about whether adolescents' identity formation is related to their emotional separation...