The literature review is basically a conceptual study that analyzes the existing research in the area of concern. The article presents a new problem of animal waste management through arsenic waste. Arsenic is a chemical element and occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure element crystal. Arsenic is notoriously poisonous to multi-cellular life because of the interaction of arsenic ions with protein thiols. Arsenic and its compounds are used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. Hence, as the article states that it is being used in the poultry industry with addition to the feed given to the ...view middle of the document...
The writer goes as far as to state the fact that, and I quote, “chicken litter is fed to cows in factory beef operations. So, the arsenic that is pooped out by the chickens gets consumed and concentrated in the tissues of cows, which is then ground into hamburgers to be consumed by the clueless masses who don’t even know they’re eating second-hand chicken sh*t.”
In an another article written by Lesley Rushton, she states her opinion by saying that There is no doubt that, given the diversity of material coming under the heading of waste, there is considerable potential for hazardous exposure to occur through waste management. High levels of contamination of air, soil and water in a few well publicized situations have led to widespread unease about the potential health effects of waste management processes, particularly within communities living in the proximity to relevant sites. Overall, however, the vast body of literature does not generally support these concerns, particularly for the two most common methods, incineration and landfill disposal. There is also a lack of evidence as to the precise substance(s) implicated. Any emissions from waste management processes are likely to be a mixture of many substances for which a toxicological profile is unknown. The greatest challenge, however, is to eliminate the effects of factors which might relate to both health outcome and environmental exposure, such as age, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic or deprivation status, smoking, access to health care and occupational history. Lack of complete adjustment for such confounders probably exists in many of the studies relating to waste management particularly those using geographical designs. Studies have shown that socio-economically disadvantaged populations and minority groups may be disproportionately located in areas around waste disposal sites. According to her, the major methods of waste management are:
1. Recycling—the recovery of materials from products after they have been used by consumers.
2. Composting—an aerobic, biological process of degradation of biodegradable organic matter.
3. Sewage treatment—a process of treating raw sewage to produce a non-toxic liquid effluent which is discharged to rivers or sea and a semi-solid...