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Literatur Nach 1945 Essay

2304 words - 10 pages


Unsere letzte Epoche wird auch Gegenwartsliteratur oder Nachkriegsliteratur genannt oder mit dem Behelfstitel „Der Nihilismus und seine Überwindung“ bezeichnet.

Historischer Hintergrund
1945 Kriegsende
Abwurf der Atombombe (hat die Literatur Jahrzehnte hindurch geprägt)
Besetzung Deutschlands und Österreichs
Spaltung Deutschlands in Ost- und Westdeutschland
1961 Bau der Mauer in Berlin
Eiserner Vorhang (Trennlinie Europas)
Kalter Krieg (45 Jahre lang)
Besetzung Österreichs bis 1955
1955 Staatsvertrag

Die Lage nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg war ähnlich der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg: Pessimismus, Trostlosigkeit, Nihilismus, alles kaputt, wieder anfangen ...view middle of the document...

(Er war mit der ersten Feministin überhaupt, Simone de Beauvoir, liiert.)

Seine Philosophie (eigentlich komplizierter):
Die Welt ist ein Nichts. Der Mensch ist in die Welt hineingeworfen.
„I stell mir immer den Mr. Bean vor – so platsch, wenn er hinunterfällt.“ (Prof. Löfler, 5.11.07).
Damit muss er sich abfinden. Das Einzige, das der Mensch besitzt, ist die Existenz.
Das heißt, das Einzige, was wir wissen, ist, dass wir da sind.

Die Essenz ist der Sinn, den wir dem Leben geben. Das Bedürfnis, das jeder Mensch hat, ist, aus dem Leben etwas zu machen – und das ist die Essenz, unsere Werte, der Sinn des Lebens.

Der Mensch möchte etwas aus seinem Leben machen – Sinn oder Ziel des Lebens ist also die Essenz. (Was mache ich daraus, was ist mir wichtig?)

Der Mensch besitzt die Entscheidungsfreiheit (sittliche Willensfreiheit), das heißt, der Mensch selber sucht die Essenz, es hilft ihm dabei niemand.

Entscheidungsfreiheit ist immer mit Schuld und Verantwortung verbunden. Die drei Begriffe gehören eng zusammen.

Nihilismus bedeutet, dass es keine Werte gibt und somit auch keine Religion, das einzige Schlupfloch, wenn der Mensch etwas verhaut hat.
„Was gaukelt uns jede Religion vor?“ (Prof. Löfler, 5.11.07)
Ein Leben nach dem Tod – wie es weitergeht hängt davon ab, ob wir es in die richtigen Bahnen lenken.

Keine Religion bedeutet, keine Chance zu haben, etwas gut zu machen. Es gibt nur eine Chance, etwas aus dem Leben zu machen.
Das Leben ist einmalig. Es gibt keinen Gott und keine Religion, das heißt, keine Möglichkeit, unsere Entscheidungen wieder rückgängig zu machen. Wir sind dazu verurteilt, aus unserem einen Leben, aus dieser einen Chance, etwas zu machen.

Die nackte Existenzphilosophie und ist pessimistisch. Weil man es aber nicht lange so pessimistisch aushält, hat man sich doch ein Schlupfloch geschaffen.

Christliche Existenzphilosophie – Christliche Existenzialisten
Eigentlich passt das nicht zusammen.

Das ist das Schlupfloch, die Kurve aus der Trostlosigkeit. Der Schöpfer oder Erschaffer der Christlichen Existenzphilosophie ist Teilhard de Chardin.

Die Christliche Existenzphilosophie verbindet zwei Dinge miteinander: den christlichen Glauben und die moderne Naturwissenschaft, oder genauer, die Evolutionstheorie, die besagt, dass der Mensch sich ständig weiter entwickelt.

Der Mensch so wie er heute ist (nach dem Krieg) – schlecht und fehlerhaft – kann noch unmöglich das Endprodukt der göttlichen Schöpfung sein.
Das Schlupfloch ist also: wir sind noch unvollkommen, aber wir entwickeln uns weiter und werden irgendwann vollkommen sein.
Mit dieser Theorie lassen sich viele moderne Werke erklären, die die Unvollkommenheit der Menschen zum Thema haben.

Kennzeichen der Gegenwartsliteratur

Nihilistischer Nullpunkt
Es gibt nie keine Werte (z.B.: war auch im Nihilistischen Impressionismus bei Schnitzlers Leutnant Gustl die Ehre wichtig), jetzt sind wir aber am absoluten Nullpunkt – es gibt nix...

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