1. Describe the life and work of Maria Montessori
Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (August 31, 1870 – May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of Education, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. Her educational method is in use today in public and private schools throughout the world.
Birth and Family:
Montessori was born in Chiravalle, Italy. Her father, Alessandro Montessori was an official of the Ministry of Finance working in the local state-run tobacco factory. Her mother, Renilde Stoppani, was well educated for the times and was the great-niece of Italian geologist and paleontologist Antonio Stoppani. While she did not have any particular ...view middle of the document...
University of Rome—Medical school
In 1890, Montessori enrolled in the University of Rome in a degree course in natural sciences, and earned her diploma di licenza in 1892. This degree qualified her for entrance into the medical program at the University in 1893.She was met with hostility and harassment from some medical students and professors because of her gender. She was required to perform her dissections of cadavers alone, after hours. Montessori won an academic prize in her first year, and in 1895 secured a position as a hospital assistant, gaining early clinical experience. In her last two years she studied pediatrics and psychiatry, and worked in the pediatric consulting room and emergency service, becoming an expert in pediatric medicine. Montessori graduated from the University of Rome in 1896 as a doctor of medicine. Her thesis was published in 1897 in the journal Policlinico. She found employment as an assistant at the University hospital and started a private practice.
1896–1901: Early career
From 1896 to 1901, Montessori worked with and researched so-called "phrenasthenic" children—children experiencing some form of mental retardation, illness, or disability. She also began to travel, study, speak, and publish nationally and internationally, coming to prominence as an advocate for women's rights and education for mentally disabled children.
Work with mentally disabled children
After graduating from the University of Rome in 1896, Montessori continued with her research at the University's psychiatric clinic, and in 1897 she was accepted as a voluntary assistant there. As part of her work, she visited asylums in Rome where she observed children with mental disabilities, observations which were fundamental to her future educational work. She also read and studied the works of 19th-century physicians and educator Itard and Edouard Seguin, who greatly influenced her work. Maria was intrigued with Itard's ideas and created a far more specific and organized system for applying them to the everyday education of children with disabilities. When she discovered the works of Jean Itard and Edouard Seguin they gave her a new direction in thinking and influenced her to focus on children with learning difficulties. Also in 1897, Montessori audited the University courses in pedagogy and read "all the major works on educational theory of the past two hundred years".
In 1897 Montessori spoke on societal responsibility for juvenile delinquency at the National Congress of Medicine in Turin. In 1898, she wrote several articles and spoke again at the 1st Pedagogical Conference of Turin, urging the creation of special classes and institutions for mentally disabled children, as well as teacher training for their instructors. In 1899 Montessori was appointed a councilor to the newly formed National League for the Protection of Retarded Children, and was invited to lecture on special methods of education for retarded children at...