Lider Vs Menager Essay

3983 words - 16 pages

Definicija lidera Podrazumeva proces, a ne samo čin, u kome određena osoba utiče na ponašanje ljudi, usmeravajući ih na ostvarenje određenih ciljeva organizacije. Biti lider ne znači samo biti vrhunski profesionalac u određenoj oblasti već to znači biti lider i u obraćanju, i u komuniciranju, i u ponašanju. Vođa mora biti: samopouzdan, siguran, informisan, entuzijasta, optimista, koga odlikuju hrabrost i odlučnost. Lider mora da ovlada mnogim vještinama - vještinom komunikacije, vještinom kako verbalnog tako i neverbalnog izražavanja, nekom sportskom vještinom i sl. Liderstvo se bazira na razumijevanju, predviđanju i kontrolisanju ponašanja saradnika. Kako lideri nastaju? Prve teorije o ...view middle of the document...

Vrhunski profesionalan, umije da kontroliše emocije i postupa uvijek u skladu sa pravilima koje zahteva poslovna komunikacija. Stilovi rukovođenja Kurt Lewin je utvrdio da u praksi postoje tri osnovna stila rukovodjenja ljudskim resursima: autokratski, demokratski i liberalni stil rukovodjenja. Svaki od navedenih stilova zaslužuje izvesnu pažnju.

Autokratski stil rukovođenja podrazumijeva da lider sam određuje politiku grupe. Sam donosi odluke i preuzima odgovornost za ponašanje, rezultate i realizaciju ciljeva kompanije. Od saradnika traži da se isključivo pridržavaju njegovih instrukcija i uputstava, da poštuju i realizuju njegove odluke i naloge. Sa podredjenima komunicira službeno. Ovaj stil je primenljiv je kod poslova koje treba hitno završiti, kod nedovoljno odlučnih i nesamostalnih saradnika, kod nestabilnih i dezorganizovanih grupa i u početku daje dobre rezultate. Medjutim, ako se primenjuje nekritički, dugotrajno, ne vodeći računa o nivou ljudskog potencijala i potrebi osamostaljivanja saradnika, postaje ograničavajući faktor razvoja kompanije i postepeno urušava organizaciju.

Demokratski stil rukovođenja je takav stil gdje lider podstiče saradnike da učestvuju u postavljanju ciljeva i određivanja metoda rada, da daju ideje i predloge za rješavanje odgovarajućih problema. Da učestvuju u donošenju odluke. Lider ne daje detaljne instrukcije, niti često kontroliše saradnike. Daje im slobodu planiranja rada. Ovaj tip rukovodjenja karakteriše često podsticanje participacije u odlučivanju. Za autokratskog menadžera se može reći da radi pomoću ljudi, a za demokratskog da radi sa ljudima. Prednost ovog tipa rukovodjenja je da menadžer efikasnije aktivira ljudske resurse na ostvarivanju ciljeva kompanije. Ovaj stil rukovođenja radnici najviše podržavaju ali isti je primjenljiv samo kada organizacija posluje u relativno stabilnim ekonomskim i društvenim odnosima.

Liberalni stil rukovođenja podrazumijeva da lider daje grupi neophodne informacije, pribavlja materijale, brine se o materijalnim i tehničkim resursima i uslovima rada. Saradnicima i pojedincima dopušta donošenje odluke uz neznatnu kontrolu i nadzor. Ovaj stil rukovodjenja može dati dobre rezultate kod dobro uhodanih grupa stručnjaka, individualaca, eksperata i kreativaca, koji imaju razvijenu samokontrolu i kojima je potrebna sloboda da izraze svoje stvaralačke i umne potencijale. U praksi se često postavlja pitanje: Koji će stil dati najbolje rezultate? Odgovori su sljedeći: Ako odluku treba brzo doneti i preduzeti hitnu ili nedvosmislenu aktivnost, autokratski stil je pravi izbor. Ako je grupa neintegrisana, nedisciplinovana i nedovoljno organizovana, autokratski stil je efikasniji, dok stabilnoj i organizovanoj grupi odgovara demokratski stil. Grupama sa visokostručnim ljudskim resursima najviše odgovara liberalni stil rukovodjenja. Drugim riječima, lider treba dobro da poznaje sva tri stila rukovodjenja, ali ne da bi izabrao najbolji, i fiksirao svoje ponašanje, već da bi...

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