- Ideology founded on the natural goodness of humans and the autonomy of the individual and favoring civil and political liberties, government by law with the consent of the governed, and protection from arbitrary authority.
- advocates limited government, constitutionalism, rule of law, due process, individual liberties including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets
Liberalism started as a major doctrine and intellectual endeavour in response to the religious wars gripping Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, up until the cold war
• Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards ...view middle of the document...
• His notion that a "government with the consent of the governed" and man's natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property) as well on tolerance, as laid down in A letter concerning toleration and Two treatises of government —had an enormous influence on the development of liberalism.
• Classical liberalism holds that individual rights are natural, inherent, or inalienable, and exist independently of government. Thomas Jefferson called these inalienable rights: "...rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law', because law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual.
• They believed that required a free economy with minimal government interference
• Whigs (or as members of the Whigery party of Britain were called) considered to include freedom of the press and freedom of speech, were justified by custom rather than by natural rights.
• Although classical liberalists advocate and aspired to a minimum of state activity, they accepted the principle of government intervention in the economy from the early 19th century. Classical liberals concluded that historical development was turning against them. The changing economic and social conditions of the 19th led to a division between neo-classical and social liberals who, while agreeing on the importance of individual liberty, differed on the role of the state. Neo-classical liberals, who called themselves "true liberals", saw Locke's Second Treatise as the best guide, and emphasised "limited government", while social liberals supported government regulation and the welfare state.
• The ideas of classical liberalism remained essentially unchallenged until THE Great Depression which led to economic hardship from which the voters demanded relief.
• thus national government had the express obligation to maintain high levels of employment in the economy, to supervise standards of life and labour, to regulate the methods of business competition, and to establish comprehensive patterns of social security.
• Today, classical liberals tend to see government power as the enemy of liberty, while modern liberals fear the concentration of wealth and the expansion of corporate power.
• And like in any adoption to the times, the concept of classical liberalism as such can no longer exist in a modern day context as its principles were only relevant at the time its founding thinkers conceptualised them. Nevertheless, classical liberalism has once again enjoy a resurgence in today’s political and constitutional framework. Legal luminaries like Justice Clarence Thomas of the United States uses language in his SC decisions that articulates political and constitutional theories with roots in the ideals classical liberalism like limited government, the rule of law, personal responsibility and freedom from restraint.
• Further, our...