Learning problems in kindergarten student with extremely preterm birth
by H Gerry Taylor, PhD, Nancy Klein, PhD, Marcia G Anselmo, MEd, Nori Minish, BS, Kimberly A Espy, PhD, and Maureen Hack, MB ChB
Physical activity but not energy expenditure is reduced in obese adolescents: a case-control study 1-3 by Ulf Ekelund, Jan Aman, Agneta Yngve, Cecilia Renman, Klaas Westerterp, and Michael Sjostrom
Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first national health and nutrition examinations survey epidemiologic follow-up study 1-3
By Lydia A Bazzano, Jiang He, Lorraine G Ogden, Catherine M Loria, Suma Vupputuri, Leann Myers, and Paul K Whelton
This type of statistics is used when there are two nominal variables and two measurement variables and to compare two or more linear regression lines to see if the slopes are significantly different or not. This study concluded that there were significant learning problems in preterm children in kindergarten so the ANCOVA is used and the common slope is the weighted average.
Second study, Physical Activity but Not Energy Expenditure is Reduced in Obese Adolescents: A Case-Control Study, was conducted to test the influence of physical activity on body weigh in adolescents. Variables included age, weight, height, fat-free mass, fat mass, body fat, and sex. The control groups included sex and group (obese compared with control subjects boys (n=8) and girls (n=10)).
This study used two types of methods Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and double labeled water (DLW). ANCOVA was used to measure the resting metabolic rate (RMR), total energy expenditure (TEE), and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) between the groups as dependent variables with fat-free mass (FFM) as the covariate. ANOVA was used in this study to show whether or not group and sex affected RMR and TEE. In this case, there was a significant group and sex effect on RMR and TEE, and AEE was higher for boys than girls. The second method DLW was used to measure free-living energy expenditure to get an average measure of TEE over a 1-3 week period. By combining two methods, researchers were better able to assess the physical activity simultaneously with the direct measurement of physical activity. The study resulted in no significant differences in adjusted TEE, RMR or AEE between groups with obese children in physical activity related energy expenditure between groups.
The third and final study, Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in US Adults: the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study 1-3, compared the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults. This ongoing cohort study used participants aged 25-74 between 1971-1975, during the participants baseline examination. Methods included participation of a National Health and Nutrition...