Managers as Leaders
Leaders in organizations make things happen. But what makes leaders different from nonleaders? What’s the most appropriate style of leadership? What can you do to be seen as a leader? Those are just a few of the questions we’ll try to answer in this chapter. Focus on the following learning outcomes as you read and study this chapter.
18.1 Define leader and leadership.
18.2 Compare and contrast early theories of leadership.
18.3 Describe the three major contingency theories of leadership.
18.4 Describe contemporary views of leadership.
18.5 Discuss contemporary issues affecting leadership.
SPOTLIGHT: Manager at Work
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In this chapter, students will be exposed to the principles of the complex and fascinating topic of leadership. In their study of Chapter 18, students will explore the evolution of leadership theory and examine leadership issues in the twenty-first century. As they learn about leadership styles of effective leaders, they will discover the importance of striving to develop traits and to practice behaviors at the present time. By putting their knowledge of leadership into action, your students will begin to acquire the ability to influence others to achieve the goals of the organizations they will serve in the near future.
The quality of leadership is an important element in an organization’s success, since leaders influence employees to work together toward the fulfillment of a company’s mission and the achievement of its goals.
1. WHO ARE LEADERS, AND WHAT IS LEADERSHIP
Certain distinctions can be made between managers and leaders.
A. While managers are appointed and have legitimate power within the organization, a leader is someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority.
B. Leadership is the process of influencing a group to achieve goals.
2. EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES
Researchers began to study leadership in the early twentieth century and developed behavioral theories that focused on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacts with his or her group members.
A. Leadership Trait Theories
Research in the 1920s and 1930s focused on traits of the leader, with the intent to isolate characteristics that might by used to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
2. Identifying a set of traits consistently associated with the process of leadership proved to be more successful than one set of traits that would always differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
3. Six traits associated with effective leadership are described in Exhibit 18-1.
B. Leadership Behavior Theories
1. Researchers began to hope that a behavioral theories approach would provide more definitive information about the nature of leadership than did trait theories.
2. Four main leader behavior studies are summarized in Exhibit 18-2.
a. University of Iowa Studies. Kurt Lewin and his associates explored three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.
b. The Ohio State Studies identified two important dimensions of leader behavior: initiating structure and consideration.
c. University of Michigan Studies identified two dimensions of leader behavior: leaders who were employee oriented and leaders who were production oriented.
d. The Managerial Grid is a two-dimensional grid used to appraise leadership styles using “concern for people” and “concern for...