The Nature of Leadership
LEADERSHIP - the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals
-a “people” activity and is dynamic and involves the use of power
LEADERSHIP vs. MANAGEMENT
|LEADERSHIP |MANAGEMENT |
|Create a vision |Concentrate on doing things efficiently |
|Leaders have followers |Managers have subordinates |
|Leaders are ...view middle of the document...
Position Power – traditional manager’s power comes from the organization. The manager’s position gives him or her the power to reward or punish subordinates to influence their behaviour.
a. Legitimate power
- Power that stems from the formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it
b. Reward power
- Result from the authority to reward others
c. Coercive power
- Power that stems from the authority to punish or recommend punishment
1) Compliance – means that the workers will obey orders and carry out instructions
2) Resistance – means that workers will deliberately try to avoid carrying out instructions
2. Personal Power – is the primary tool of the leader most often comes from internal sources, such as an individual’s special knowledge or personal characteristics which is becoming increasingly important as more businesses are run by teams of workers who are less tolerant of authoritarian management
a. Expert power – power that stems from special knowledge of or skill in the tasks performed by subordinates
b. Referent power – power that results from characteristics that command subordinates’ identification with respect and admiration for and desire to emulate that individual
3. Other sources of power:
a. Personal Effort - People who show initiative, work beyond what is expected of them, take on undesirable but important projects, and show interest in learning about the organization and industry often gain power as a result
b. Network of Relationships - People who are enmeshed in a network of relationships have greater power. A leader or employee with many relationships knows what’s going on in the organization and industry, whereas one who has few interpersonal connections is often in the dark about important activities or changes
c. Information - Information is a primary business resource, and people who have access to information and control over how and to whom it is distributed are typically powerful.
Traits – distinguishing personal characteristics, such as intelligence, values, and appearance.
A. Trait Theories
6 Traits that Differs LEADERS from NON-LEADERS
1. Personal drive
2. Desire to lead
3. Honesty and Integrity
4. Self- confidence
6. Job-relevant knowledge
❖ AUTOCRATIC vs DEMOCRATIC LEADERS
Autocratic Leader – one who tends to centralize authority and rely on legitimate, reward and coercive power to manage subordination
Democratic Leader – delegates authority to others, encourages participation, and relies on expert and referent power to manage subordinates
B. Behavioral Theories / Approaches
1. Ohio States Studies – surveyed leaders to study hundreds of dimensions of leader behaviour.
2 Major Behaviors
a. Consideration – is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates,...