This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Latinalaisamerikkalaisen Demokratian Synty Essay

2131 words - 9 pages

XAK 140L / Latinalaisen Amerikan historia, kulttuurit ja yhteiskunnat / referaatti, yhteiskunnat -osio 2 op

Jaana Helminen
op.nro 011613127

John Peeler: Building Democracy in Latin America

Demokratian perusta Latinalaisessa Amerikassa

Onko demokratia vain osa länsimaista kulttuuritraditiota vai voidaanko se laajentaa universaaliksi käsitteeksi, jopa päämääräksi, joka on mahdollista saavuttaa missä tahansa? Demokratian käsite ja sen toiminta on muuttunut ja muuntautunut aikakausien kuluessa. Poliittiset suuntaukset ja tarpeet ovat määritelleet myös sitä, miten demokratia itse asiassa on ymmärretty eri aikoina: klassisesta demokratiasta siirryttiin Rooman valtakunnan tuhon ...view middle of the document...

1980-luvulla talouskriisit ja yleinen sorronvastustus johti monet Latinalaisen Amerikan maat pyrkimyksiin kohti demokratiaa. Peelerin mukaan pohjalla oli vakaumus siitä, että liberaali demokratia tuo mukanaan ihmisoikeuksien kunnioitusta ja areenan poliittiselle keskustelulle. Näiden syiden lisäksi myös taloudelliset tilanteet pakottivat valtiot kääntymään yhä enenevässä määrin kohti demokraattisempaa hallintatapaa, eli houkutellakseen maahan ulkomaisia pääomavirtoja ja IMF:n talousapua. 1990-luvulla ja uudelle vuosituhannelle siirryttäessä talousglobalisaation kiihtyminen on aiheuttanut köyhimmille maille tukalan tilanteen, jossa ne ovat olleet yhä enemmän riippuvaisia globaaleista taloussuhdanteista sekä kansainvälisistä sopimuksista ja päätöksistä kuin pelkästään omistaan. Mielestäni tämä kuvaa hyvin sitä, miten selkeä ja todellinen ristiriita vallitsee suvereenin valtion ja globaalitalouden joka maailmankolkkaan ulottuvan ”kouran” välillä.

Vaikka Latinalaisen Amerikan valtioiden poliittinen perusta ja historia eivät ensisijaisesti olekaan demokraattisia, Peeler vakuuttaa, että niiden poliittisesta traditiosta löytyy elementtejä, jotka eivät ole kovin kaukana demokraattisesta ajattelusta. Mutta maiden poliittista historiaa tulkitessa voidaan nähdä, että juuri näitä elementtejä poliittiset toimijat ovat usein käyttäneet legitimoidakseen omia tavoitteitaan. Pääpiirteiltään maiden on leimattu noudattavan mm. keskusvaltaista poliittista traditiota, jonka juuret juontuvat espanjalaisvaltaan, ja jonka vuoksi latinalaisamerikkalaiset valtiot eivät ole myötämielisiä demokratiaa kohtaan (Véliz). Peeler näkee demokraattisen kehityksen esteenä myös jyrkän yhteiskunnallisen eriarvoisuuden. Erityisesti kaikenkattava epätasa-arvo eliitin ja köyhän väestön välillä (vain harvassa maassa ollut toimiva keskiluokka), hallitsevan luokan riisto köyhän enemmistön kustannuksella ja patronaattioikeuksien mukainen holhoussuhde eivät edesauta demokratiapyrkimyksiä.

Peeler mainitsee myös, että jokaisen maan poliittisesta historiasta löytyy esikuvia niille, jotka haluavat vastustaa vallassa olevia. Kaikki itsenäistymis- ja kapinayritykset pohjautuvat demokraattiselle perusajatukselle, jossa valloitetut pyrkivät nousemaan valloittajiaan vastaan, tavoitteenaan itsemääräämisoikeus. Historian saatossa myös muissa maissa tapahtuneet poliittiset muutokset ovat toimineet innostavina esimerkkeinä (Yhdysvaltain itsenäistyminen, Ranskan vallankumous jne.).

Demokratisaatioprosessit – kaksi aaltoa

Liberaali demokraattinen hallintotapa ulottuu nykyisin jo lähes kaikkiin latinalaisamerikkalaisiin maihin. Demokratisaatioprosessin on nähty tapahtuneen kahdessa eri aallossa, joista ensimmäinen 1920–60 luvuilla ja toinen 1970-luvulta tähän päivään saakka.

Ensimmäinen aalto: Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Kolumbia ja Venezuela

Ensimmäisen aallon poliittisissa muutoksissa oli lähinnä kyse kansalaisten osallistumismahdollisuuksien laajentamisesta. Vaalijärjestelmä oli...

Other Papers Like Latinalaisamerikkalaisen Demokratian Synty

A Heart Of Darkness Essay

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

US Freight System

1273 words - 6 pages General Environment Each American requires the movement of approximately 40 tons of freight per year across the freight network. This includes everything from shirts to lawn mower to orange juice. • As the U.S. population expands, the U.S. freight system will be called upon to meet the demands of a larger population • Between 2010 and 2035, the system will experience a 22 percent increase in the total amount of tonnage it moves • By 2050, with

Democratic Peace Theory

1852 words - 8 pages Intro: US Presidents have made it a goal during their term(s) in office to establish a good relationship with foreign countries and even try to improve upon existing connections with our allies. Some believe it is to prevent conflicts between the countries while others dispute that it is a threat assessment by the United States to pick and choose their friends and enemies. Preventing conflict between two democracies or countries that practice

Booker T. Washington

1621 words - 7 pages “Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome” –Booker T. Washing. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born in Hale’s Ford, Virginia on April 5th, 1856 to Jane Burroughs and an unknown White man. Washington was married three times. His first wife was Fannie N. Smith from Malden, West Virginia. Booker and Fannie were married in the summer of 1882 and had one child

Corn, Broccoli, Grass Or Balanced

2611 words - 11 pages About a century ago, there was not an epidemic of diet-related illness, a bizarre account of destroyed farmland, dead zones in our oceans created by chemical run-off spilling into the waterways, and there sure was not millions of people questioning the moral ethics of their diet. In the Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, the author Michael Pollan goes on a journey to investigate the sources of the nation’s food supply, for which

Related Essays

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania Essay

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are