Las Reformas Borbónicas Essay

1546 words - 7 pages

Las reformas borbónicas
Pedro J. Frau-Irizarry
Prof. Léster López-Nieves
Universidad de Phoenix

A la llegada del siglo XVIII, y en respuesta a los grandes cambios y transformaciones de las demás naciones europeas, en España también se suscitó una serie de renovaciones que marcaron o definieron drásticamente la historia de este país así como la de sus colonias, y cual Puerto Rico no fue la excepción. La índole de estos cambios fue en su mayoría de carácter político, comercial-económico y administrativo, y cuales también incluyeron el aspecto militar. Y como el objetivo o fin era mejorar las estructuras ya existentes [en síntesis, recuperar la supremacía (marítima) comercial ...view middle of the document...

[De ahí que se creasen virreinatos, capitanías y comandancias con el fin de distribuir el control de manera más eficaz.]

De hecho, se puede afirmar que esto fue lo que en efecto sucedió bajo la dinastía borbónica (o francesa, por su procedencia), tanto así que algunos historiadores la han denominado o atribuido el término ‘revolución’, pues abarcó la sociedad y el Estado españoles. Y las bases de este nuevo espíritu (reformista) se hallaron en los movimientos intelectuales conocidos como la “ilustración”, cual procedía a su vez del “racionalismo”; aunque este último no tuvo un efecto profundo en aquella sociedad española, debido a que era un pensamiento o doctrina –en esencia– contrario a lo que enseñaba la religión. En cambio, la Ilustración española fue considerada como algo de carácter práctico, además de ser reconocida oficialmente al imponerse desde los mismos funcionarios del gobierno, quienes se dejaron guiar por los principios más funcionales para desarrollar y llevar a cabo sus programas.

Claro, no se puede automáticamente inferir que estos cambios fueron absolutamente positivos o provechosos para todos los implicados. La realidad es que los mismos cambios que ocasionaron la recuperación de la nación, a su vez trajeron consigo fricciones, desacuerdos y perturbaciones en la mayoría de la población común, que fueron los móviles para las posteriores rebeliones buscando independencia de la metrópoli (o monarquía española). Pero teniendo presente que la visión de los Borbones era que España volviese a producir –como en épocas anteriores– grandes ganancias comerciales para la monarquía como también para el resto de la población española, desde esta perspectiva sí se logró su meta. No obstante, estos efectos o resultados no fueron rápidamente evidentes en Puerto Rico, ya que la alta jerarquía española no le mostró mucho interés o atención particular hasta décadas más tarde.

Referente al ámbito comercial, ahora la economía no giraría mayoritariamente en torno a la ganadería, pues se le dio gran énfasis en desarrollar de nuevo las actividades agrícolas, las cuales aumentaban con marcada rapidez, y tenían el fin de promover no solo el comercio y consumo local o interno, sino también el cultivo comercial o de exportación. Y para estos efectos se diseñaron incentivos fiscales y créditos contributivos. En fin, vislumbraban q sus mismas colonias fuesen las que proveyesen eficientemente las materias primas y consumiesen lo manufacturado por los españoles. De ahí surgió al paso de los años la “Compañía de Barcelona” (1755), que pretendía fomentar esta agricultura de exportación de Puerto Rico, entre otras islas. Estos cambios –que fueron favorecidos y apoyados por la Corona Española– permitían nivelar la economía al darles la oportunidad a los pequeños agricultores para que entrasen al comercio de forma perceptible y contundente. Y estos logros en su mayoría se debieron a la súbita y acelerada difusión extendida del café, y al resurgimiento...

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