Landbrugshistorie Essay

4233 words - 17 pages

Indledning
I denne opgave vil vi gøre rede for, hvad der førte til landboreformerne, hvori de bestod og hvilke forandringer de skabte. En senere stor forandring udgjorde andelsbevægelsen, derfor behandler vi også den i opgaven. Udviklingen blev fortsat i 1900-tallet, hvor vi kigger på hvordan landbruget klarede sig i krigs- og krisetid. Vi vil generelt også komme ind på forandringer i ejendomsforhold og dyrkningsmetoder.
Én af årsagerne til de omfattende landboreformer i 1700-tallet kan læses i en forordning fra d. 23.4.1781 om udskiftning og udflytning:
”Vi, Christian den syvende, gøre alle vitterligt: At som agerdyrkningen, næst den allerhøjestes velsignelse, er grundstøtten ...view middle of the document...

Disse metoder var græsmarksbrug (veksling mellem 4-5 års kornavl og græs), alsædsbrug (udelukkende korndyrkning år efter år) og trevangsbrug (en

rotation i dyrkningen af markerne).[2] På denne tid blev hjulploven brugt til dyrkning. Den havde hjul således at den lettere kunne trækkes over marken. Ulempen var at der skulle bruges 6-8 heste for at trække ploven.

Landsbyernes gårdmænd indgik i et bylav, hvor oldermændene var lederne og dette arbejde gik for det meste på rundtur mellem fæstebønderne. Husmænd indgik ikke i dette bylav. Der blev i rigslovgivningen fastlagt en hovedregel der bestod i, at en bymand (grande) ikke kunne afvise hvad bylavet vedtog på bystævnet. Byloven bestemte at der skulle være gensidig hjælp ved fx ildebrand og sygdom, men også at fred og orden skulle bevares i landsbyerne. Hvis lovene blev overtrådt, kunne bystævnet dømme forbryderne med bøder og udpantning.[3]
Indtil opløsningen af landsbyfællesskabet sidst i 1700-tallet var landsbyerne samfundets bærende element.

1.1.2. Hovedgårde
I 1400-tallet var hovedgårde (de senere herregårde) ofte små og integrerede i landsbyfællesskabet, dvs. at de fleste herregårde lå i en landsby og at de havde deres marker spredt blandt bøndernes.
Der begyndte en udskiftning og udflytning allerede på denne tid.[4] Udskiftningen og udflytningen varede ca. hundrede år og bevirkede, at herregårdene flyttede deres jord væk fra landsbyerne. Deres jord kaldtes nu for enemærker, hvilket var en modsætning til landsbyernes fællesmarker. Herregårdene blev flyttet til eftertragtede steder som fx ved en sø, å, skov eller eng. I 1680 var der 731 hovedgårde i Danmark, og dette antal varierede næsten ikke i perioden fra 1500-1800.
I kraft af hoveriet skulle bønder og deres karle dyrke herregårdenes marker. De skulle selv sørge for trækkraft (heste, okser) og redskaber. Dvs. at bønderne og deres karle både skulle så og høste deres egne marker og herregårdenes. Herregårdene skulle ikke betale skat eller tiende (afgift til kirken eller kongen, der udgjorde en tiendedel af en mands afgrøder) for deres produktion og de fik også gratis arbejdskraft hos bønderne.[5] Dette bevirkede en stor social, arbejdsmæssig og økonomisk forskel mellem herremænd og bønder.

Omkring 1500 var det almindeligt, at hovedgårde havde jord som 2-3 fæstebønder, et antal der indtil 1770 steg til 30-50 fæstebondegårde pr. hovedgård. Jorden til disse hovedgårde blev taget fra fæstebønderne, og ofte blev der nedlagt gårde og hele landsbyer til gavn for hovedgårdene. Efterhånden dækkede hovedgårdene ca. 1/10 del af Danmarks areal. De øgede hovedgårdsmarker krævede et forøget hoveri og til dette formål var der brug for mange fæstegårde, der lå i nærheden af hovedgården.
Kongen ejede efter reformationen ca. halvdelen af landets gårde, men solgte mange til herremændene for at dække fx krigsudgifter. Dette betød at fæstebønderne kunne skifte fra at være kronens bonde til at blive bonde for en godsejer. Bønderne havde ingen...

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