This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Land Reforms In India Essay

2925 words - 12 pages

Land Reforms & Duty Of State:
“Verify, The Land Belongs To Him Who Labours On It”
Changes brought about in the agrarian structure through direct intervention are characterised as land reforms. It incorporates the changing of laws, regulations regarding land ownership. Land reforms are an attempt by the Government to achieve social equality and optimum utilization of land by redistributing the land holdings. These reforms are intended to eliminate exploitation and social injustice within the agrarian system, to provide security for the tiller of the soil and to remove obstacles arising from the agrarian structure that has been inherited from the past.

It is the scheme of the government ...view middle of the document...

At the same time, neither was the landlord particularly concerned about improving the economic condition of the cultivators. As a result, agricultural productivity suffered and oppression of tenants resulted in a progressive deterioration of their plight. And therefore, the concept of land reforms came into practice.

System Of Land Tenure
At the time of Independence, land tenure system was quite unfavourable to the farmers. There were three types of land tenure systems prevailing in the country - Zamindari System, Mahalwari System and the Ryotwari System. The main distinction in these systems was regarding the payment of land revenue, that it deals with the entire revenue jurisdiction that how it is to be paid, to whom it is to be paid.

Zamindari System
This system was introduced by East India Company in 1793, when Lord Cornwallis entered into ‘permanent settlement’ with landlords with a view to increasing the revenue of the Company. East India Company has entered into permanent settlement with landlords who had big chunk of lands, for the commercial gain that is to expand their business. Under the settlement, the landlords were declared full proprietors of large areas of land, thereby creating a permanent interest in the land and the task of collecting rent from the farmers was also entrusted to them for which they received a commission. With the passage of time these landlords became the intermediaries between the cultivators and the State.

The Zamindari System suffered from a number of defects. It conferred unlimited rights on the Zamindars to expropriate as much rent as they wished. It also entitled them to share the produce without participating personally in the productive process. The actual cultivator was left with no surplus to invest in better instruments and neither was there any extra incentive for him to increase agricultural production and productivity.

Mahalwari System
This system was introduced by William Bentick in Agra and Oudh. And later on it extended to Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. Under this system, the whole village was treated as one unit as far as payment of land revenue is concerned and it was the responsibility of the village headman for collecting the land revenue. It implies that in certain areas where the landlords did not have chunk of land, whole village was treated as one unit and for each village revenue was required to be paid.

Ryotwari System
This system was not much into practice and was prevailing in very few parts of the country. Initially it was introduced in Tamil Nadu and later it was extended to Maharashtra, Barar, East Punjab, Assam, and Coorg. Here the responsibility of paying the land revenue was of the cultivator himself who was having the land and was required to pay to the Britishers. There were no intermediaries here between him and the state. The ryot was free to sub let his land and had full rights regarding sale, transfer and leasing of land and enjoyed permanent settlement...

Other Papers Like Land Reforms in India

India And China Essay

927 words - 4 pages market. Despite the catastrophe of Japan's war years, the lessons of its development experience remained and were followed, in the postwar period, by South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and other economies in East Asia. China, which during the Mao era made advances in land reform and basic education and health care, embarked on market reforms in the early 1980s; its huge success changed the shape of the world economy. India has paid inadequate

Mordern India Essay

1794 words - 8 pages telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe. However, disaffection with the Company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company

Nonviolence and Social Change

591 words - 3 pages , during the resident Indian community's struggle there for civil rights. During this time, he wrote articles for Indian newspapers about black people that some modern readers consider racist. After his return to India in 1915, he organised protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease

Strengthening the Manufacturing Sector

881 words - 4 pages industries – rendering its goods cheaper and most competitive globally. We have draconian laws, wobbly infrastructure facilities, land acquisition controversies and regulatory hurdles standing in the way. A cynical view is that in India, a manufacturing unit has to comply with as many as 70 laws and file something like 100 returns every year. Foot-dragging over much-hyped legislative actions such as the introduction of a Direct Tax Code and a pan

Memorandum

1266 words - 6 pages new policies, it is recommended that government should circulate these reforms to all the industries making it legal and mandatory. Implementation of mission’s objectives and the above mentioned reforms can only take place with your assistance in quality legislation. India is a large democracy, with all major challenges of achieving economic and social development. But, with a section of society having great level of awareness at the same

Japanese Fdi

5206 words - 21 pages Soviet Union. Steel, mining, machine tools, water, telecommunications, insurance, and electrical plants, among other industries, were effectively nationalized in the mid-1950s.Elaborate licenses, regulations and the accompanying red tape, commonly referred to as License Raj, were required to set up business in India between 1947 and 1990.In the 80s, the government led by Rajiv Gandhi started light reforms. The government slightly reduced License Raj

To What Extent Was Alexander Ii a Reformist Tsar?

1259 words - 6 pages extent, who they affected and the effectiveness or result. The Tsar introduced reforms including the creation of the Zemstva, emancipation of the serfs and reforms in education, church, army and judiciary. Alexander could be considered to a large extent a reformist tsar, as he introduced a reform which had been wanted, anticipated and effectual by/to most of the population. One of the largest social problems facing Russia at the time of

Foreign Direct Investments

1176 words - 5 pages of FDI, in India and examines the developments (economic and political) relating to the trends in two sectors: industry and infrastructure. The study concludes that the impact of the reforms in India on the policy environment for FDI presents a mixed picture. The industrial reforms have gone far, though they need to be supplemented by more infrastructure reforms, which are a critical missing link. Nirupam Bajpai and Jeffrey D. Sachs (2006) in

Imperialism

1936 words - 8 pages War and the Treaty of Nanjing. Britain kept Hong Kong for around 100 years before giving it back on July 1, 1997. In India, they lost a much greater mass. With internal rebellions between the Hindus and the Muslims, Britain decided to settle it by creating the country of Pakistan. This nation was created on August 14, 1947. Indian and Chinese lifestyles changed with many reforms during imperialism. The Indians had reforms that brought them new

Revamping Agriculture Economy in India

3767 words - 16 pages price triggers, with precise arrangements to be further defined. National Commission on Farmers: To improve the condition of Indian farmers, National Commission on Farmers have been set up by the Government of India. It has been submitted five reports between December 2005 and October, 2006Key recommendations of the commission have been incorporated in the Revised Draft National Policy for farmers. These include: asset reforms covering land

Make in India

1187 words - 5 pages ) The government has increased the number IIT’s and IIM’sto improve the numbers of engineers , management students to improve the standard of manufacturing in India. 2) Build new ITI’s to improve practical skills among resources. 3) Government and business should collaborate with universities to develop cutting edge technologies which can be used to improve manufacturing to larger extend * Land

Related Essays

Judicial Reforms In India Essay

4227 words - 17 pages Need for Judicial Reforms in India 1- Historical Overview: “Judicial Reforms” is a theme, which is so much of talked about but too little has been done. Indian judicial system has a long history right from the pre-British days. In the 18th century a uniform pattern of judiciary emerged and during the British regime High Courts were established in presidency towns. Thereafter, in 1937, the Federal Court was established to hear the appeals

Banking Sector Reforms In India Essay

1857 words - 8 pages BANKING SECTOR REFORMS IN INDIA . Introduction: Financial sector reforms introduced in the early 1990s as a part of the structural reforms have touched upon almost all aspects of banking operation. For a few decades preceding the onset of banking and financial sector reforms in India, banks operated in an environment that was heavily regulated and characterized by sufficient barriers to entry which protected them against too much

Law Reforms And Commissions In Pre Independant India

1905 words - 8 pages Law reforms and law commissions in pre-independent India Introduction to law commissions- an important step towards fulfilling the goal of securing a uniform and simple system of law in India through the process of comprehensive consolidation and modification, to advise the newly created legislative council on matters of law, and to integrate and organize the scattered, conflicting and incoherent system of regulation into a general system of

Indian Economy Essay

816 words - 4 pages : Balance of Payments: India’s balance of payment has been in RED since independent and though growing exports in post-liberalization era is expected to bring it down, the current rising oil bill is making it look difficult. Foreign Direct Investments (FDI): India is the preferred destination for FDI since liberalization. Industrial reforms have made the scenario more attractive and with growing economy it looks promising in terms of return.  Global