Motivation Self-beliefs of efficacy play a key role in the self-regulation of motivation. Most human motivation iscognitively generated. People motivate themselves and guide their actions anticipatorily by the exercise offorethought. They form beliefs about what they can do. They anticipate likely outcomes of prospectiveactions. They set goals for themselves and plan courses of action designed to realize valued futures.There are three different forms of cognitive motivators around which different theories have been built.They include causal attributions, outcome expectancies, and cognized goals. The corresponding theories areattribution theory, expectancy-value theory and goal theory, respectively. Self-efficacy beliefs operate in eachof these types of cognitive motivation. Self-efficacy beliefs influence causal attributions. People who regardthemselves as highly ...view middle of the document...
The motivating influence ofoutcome expectancies is thus partly governed by self-beliefs of efficacy. There are countless attractiveoptions people do not pursue because they judge they lack the capabilities for them. The predictiveness ofexpectancy-value theory is enhanced by including the influence of perceived self- efficacy.
PerseveranceIt requires a strong sense of efficacy to remain task oriented in the face of pressing situational demands,failures and setbacks that have significant repercussions. Indeed, when people are faced with the tasks ofmanaging difficult environmental demands under taxing circumstances, those who are beset by self-doubtsabout their efficacy become more and more erratic in their analytic thinking, lower their aspirations and thequality of their performance deteriorates. In contrast, those who maintain a resilient sense of efficacy setthemselves challenging goals and use good analytic thinking which pays off in performanceaccomplishments.
Thoughts Perceived self-efficacy to control thought processes is a key factor in regulating thought produced stress anddepression. It is not the sheer frequency of disturbing thoughts but the perceived inability to turn them offthat is the major source of distress. Both perceived coping self-efficacy and thought control efficacy operatejointly to reduce anxiety and avoidant behavior.Low self efficacy can lead people to believe tasks are harder than they actually are. This often results in poortask planning, as well as increased stress. Observational evidence shows that people become erratic andunpredictable when engaging in a task in which they have low efficacy. On the other hand, people with highself efficacy often take a wider picture of a task in order to take the best route of action. People with highself efficacy are shown to be encouraged by obstacles to greater effort. Self efficacy also affects how peoplerespond to failure. A person with a high efficacy will attribute the failure to external factors, where a personwith low self efficacy will attribute failure to low ability