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Lala Essay

6012 words - 25 pages

BAB II

LANDASAN TEORI

II.1 Good Corporate Governance (GCG)

II.1.1 Sejarah GCG

Sejarah lahirnya GCG muncul atas reaksi para pemegang saham di Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1980-an yang terancam kepentingannya (Budiati, 2012). Dimana pada saat itu di Amerika terjadi gejolak ekonomi yang luar biasa yang mengakibatkan banyak perusahaan yang melakukan restrukturisasi dengan menjalankan segala cara untuk merebut kendali atas perusahaan lain. Tindakan ini menimbulkan protes keras dari masyarakat atau publik. Publik menilai bahwa manajemen dalam mengelola perusahaan mengabaikan kepentingan-kepentingan para pemegang saham sebagai pemilik modal perusahaan. Merger dan ...view middle of the document...

Setelah itu pemerintah Indonesia menandatangani Nota Kesepakatan (Letter of Intent) dengan International Monetary Fund (IMF) yang mendorong terciptanya iklim yang lebih kondusif bagi penerapan GCG. Pemerintah Indonesia mendirikan lembaga khusus, yaitu Komite Nasional Kebijakan Corporate Governance (KNKCG) yang memiliki tugas pokok dalam merumuskan dan menyusun rekomendasi kebijakan nasional mengenai GCG, serta memprakarsai dan memantau perbaikan di bidang corporate governance di Indonesia.

Sejauh ini penegakan aturan untuk penerapan CGG belum ada sanksi bagi perusahaan yang belum menerapkan maupun yang sudah menerapkan tetapi tidak sesuai standar pelaksanaan GCG. Namun pelaksanaan penerapan GCG memberi nilai tambah bagi perusahaan. Perusahaan yang melakukan peningkatan pada kualitas GCG menunjukan peningkatan penilaian pasar, sedangkan perusahaan yang mengalami penurunan kualitas GCG, cenderung menunjukan penurunan pada penilaian pasar (Cheung, 2011).

II.1.2 Definisi GCG

Istilah tata kelola perusahaan di Indonesia merupakan terjemahan dari corporate governance. Kata governance berasal dari bahasa Prancis kuno yaitu gouvernance yang berarti pengendalian (control) atau regulated dan dapat dikatakan sebagai suatu keadaan yang berada dalam kondisi yang terkendali (Subroto, 2005).

GCG merupakan masalah yang tidak akan berakhir dan terus akan menjadi bahan pembahasan bagi pelaku bisnis, akademis, pembuatan kebijakan dan lain sebagainya. Perhatian terhadap GCG kian meningkat seiring banyak bermunculan masalah skandal keuangan di lingkungan bisnis. Konsep GCG telah banyak dikemukakan oleh banyak ahli dan badan sebagai alat control dan pengawasan terhadap kinerja manajemen.

Definisi GCG menurut Keputusan Menteri Badan Usaha Milik Negara Nomor: KEP-117/M-MBU/2002 adalah suatu proses atau struktur yang digunakan oleh BUMN untuk meningkatkan keberhasilan usaha dan akuntabilitas perusahaan guna mewujudkan nilai pemegang saham dalam jangka waktu panjang dan tetap memperhatikan kepentingan stakeholders lainnya, berlandaskan peraturan perundang-undangan dan nilai-nilai etika. Sehubungan dengan tidak berlakunya Keputusan Menteri Negara BUMN tersebut yang selama ini digunakan sebagai dasar penerapan GCG, yaitu Keputusan Menteri Negara BUMN Nomor: Kep–117/M-MBU/2002 tanggal 31 Juli 2002 tentang Penerapan Praktik GCG pada Badan Usaha Milik Negara karena digantikan dengan Peraturan Menteri Negara Badan Usaha Milik Negara Nomor : PER-01 /MBU/2011 Tentang Penerapan Tata Kelola Perusahaan yang Baik (Good Corporate Governance) pada Badan Usaha Milik Negara (tanggal 1 Agustus 2011), maka definisi GCG berubah menjadi prinsip-prinsip yang mendasari suatu proses dan mekanisme pengelolaan perusahaan berlandaskan peraturan perundang-undangan dan etika berusaha.

Menurut Muh. Arief Effendi (2009) dalam bukunya The Power of Good Corporate Governance, pengertian GCG adalah suatu sistem...

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