La Razza Invisibile Giapponese Essay

5745 words - 23 pages

|
La Razza Invisibile Giapponese |
Dalle Origini all’Emancipazione |
|
|
Eleonora Rosin Num. Matricola 820887 |

|

Quello delle minoranze è un tema poco noto ai più in Occidente. Nel 1986 l’allora primo ministro Yasuhiro Nakasone definì il Giappone “una nazione omogenea”, dove non esisteva discriminazione semplicemente perché non esistevano minoranze. La frase fece il giro del mondo e destò non poche proteste da parte delle comunità, ma in realtà quella che Nakasone aveva espresso pubblicamente era un’idea molto ...view middle of the document...

Durante il periodo Tokugawa (1603-1868 d.C.) i fuori casta erano spesso non elencati nei tabulati censori e quando lo erano risultavano in liste separate dalle “persone”. Alcune mappe erano disegnate escludendo gli insediamenti dei fuori casta e le distanze indicate erano addirittura ridotte per escludere queste comunità. Dopo la loro emancipazione nel 1871, essi furono ufficialmente definiti come cittadini comuni e poi comunque ampiamente ignorati in termini pratici.
Nonostante molte teorie sul fatto che i fuori casta possano essere discendenti da popolazioni esterne al Giappone, gli studi hanno rilevato che le prime comunità nacquero nel Kansai, il cuore della cultura storica giapponese, piuttosto che nell’estremo ovest dove avrebbero potuto trovare influenze coreane o nell’estremo nord dove sono presenti gli Ainu. Pur non essendoci in effetti differenze etniche sostanziali, si tratta di una cosiddetta “razza invisibile”, ovvero visibile solo agli occhi dei membri della tradizione culturale giapponese.
Per oltre mille anni è rimasta l’idea fra il popolo che alcuni individui appartenenti alle caste più basse fossero anche fisicamente inferiori ai giapponesi “ordinari”. In principio questa inferiorità era attribuita alla pratica di commerci cosiddetti “contaminati” e all’associazione con sangue e morte. Dopo un lungo contatto con impurità –fossero esse mondane o sovrannaturali- si credeva che la natura propria di un uomo cambiasse. Questo cambiamento, ovviamente in negativo, veniva poi non solo trasmesso ai propri discendenti, ma in qualche modo risultava contagioso: la semplice presenza di un fuori casta, o “intoccabile”, era contaminante.
Nel periodo Tokugawa i fuori casta erano normalmente identificabili, almeno all’interno di una certa area, dalle comunità residenziali, dal loro lavoro, dai legami di parentela e spesso da caratteristiche aggiuntive come vestiario (un pezzo di cuoio cucito sul kimono), i capelli legati da paglia, piedi scalzi o un comportamento sottomesso. Il dogma di traffici ritualmente contaminanti rappresentava ancora una corrente forte, ma le variazioni locali richiesero ulteriori categorie: intere comunità buraku non praticavano più tali attività da secoli.
La credenza nella diversità fisica dei fuori casta arrivò a giustificarsi coinvolgendo il consumo di carne nella dieta, malattie particolari, relazioni incestuose e anormalità ereditarie. Una delle teorie prevalenti dell’ultimo secolo per la supposta inferiorità fisica dei fuori casta è che derivassero da una razza inferiore o un gruppo etnico simile agli animali. L’idea dell’affinità con gli animali risulta spesso nella tradizione: sono ricorrenti nel folklore giapponese frasi quali “Manca loro una costola”, “Hanno le ossa di un cane”, “Hanno organi sessuali distorti”, “Hanno organi escretori difettosi”, “Sono animali, lo sporco non si attacca ai loro piedi quando sono scalzi”.
Lo stato di fuori casta e i comportamenti nei confronti dell’”intoccabilità” si...

Other Papers Like La Razza Invisibile Giapponese

A Heart Of Darkness Essay

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

US Freight System

1273 words - 6 pages General Environment Each American requires the movement of approximately 40 tons of freight per year across the freight network. This includes everything from shirts to lawn mower to orange juice. • As the U.S. population expands, the U.S. freight system will be called upon to meet the demands of a larger population • Between 2010 and 2035, the system will experience a 22 percent increase in the total amount of tonnage it moves • By 2050, with

Democratic Peace Theory

1852 words - 8 pages Intro: US Presidents have made it a goal during their term(s) in office to establish a good relationship with foreign countries and even try to improve upon existing connections with our allies. Some believe it is to prevent conflicts between the countries while others dispute that it is a threat assessment by the United States to pick and choose their friends and enemies. Preventing conflict between two democracies or countries that practice

Booker T. Washington

1621 words - 7 pages “Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome” –Booker T. Washing. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born in Hale’s Ford, Virginia on April 5th, 1856 to Jane Burroughs and an unknown White man. Washington was married three times. His first wife was Fannie N. Smith from Malden, West Virginia. Booker and Fannie were married in the summer of 1882 and had one child

Corn, Broccoli, Grass Or Balanced

2611 words - 11 pages About a century ago, there was not an epidemic of diet-related illness, a bizarre account of destroyed farmland, dead zones in our oceans created by chemical run-off spilling into the waterways, and there sure was not millions of people questioning the moral ethics of their diet. In the Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, the author Michael Pollan goes on a journey to investigate the sources of the nation’s food supply, for which

Related Essays

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania Essay

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are