L185 Tma04 Part 2 Essay

990 words - 4 pages

L185 TMA04 part 2

Rainforests have been declining rapidly over the last few decades. There are various factors responsible for this decline, resulting in serious impacts on the environment and the economy. Critically discuss the causes of deforestation and solutions to it.

Irresponsible and destructive activity caused by the human beings has resulted in deforestation. This phenomena have extended rapidly, and the rainforests are severely threatened of extinction. Forests are seen mainly as a primary resource, an exhaustible resource of high commercial value. On the other hand, trees are the foundation of our life on the earth, give us oxygen, so we are able to breathe and live. ...view middle of the document...

The problem of deforestation has many different causes., in order to understand, how to implement an effective cash incentive, the benefit or value accrued by the society and the private agents as a result of the deforestation need to separated. It seems to be sure that one of the causes of deforestation is the result of market failure, where society and private agents such as corporation, community, entrepreneurs and cultivators ignore each other and the complementary actions. Adam Smith’s opinion is that a free trade with rules does not guarantee the reciprocal and adequate exchange of goods, products and services while the “invisible hand” would handle the related parts to interchange goods in the most mutually beneficial way (OU Block 4 Section 4 text 4.5 good). However, many private agents have no interest in protecting the forests’ biodiversity as the forests are providing value which could not be charged.

Add a more general theme sentence here. According to the World Bank Forestry Policy (1991), Pearce and Watford (1993), poverty is another reason of the deforestation, a common shared view is “high discount rates” to poor countries are a cause of deforestation. Caused by the forests’ long term dynamics, private agents from poor countries consider the forest as an immediate benefit to be trade today and not as a valuable future resource. However, in a recent World Bank examination, Ekbom and Bojo (1999) challenged those opinions by demonstrating that poverty does not always guide towards the resources excessive usage as in the previous centuries. Recourses were used in a conservationist manner by the rural population. Ostrom (1990) has identified that rural people used resources in a sustainable manner for long periods of time.

As determined by WWF International, there are many other process that are being taken in an attempt to avoid an Amazon tipping point. Landowners burn the forests to prepare the property for the intensive agriculture and cattle grazing. The forests are rapidly recovering from fire, landowners are instructed to refrain from using fire as a tool for the creation of new...

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