Timeline: Phase I
Japan formally annexes Korea, making it a part of Japan's empire.
Japanese colonialism in Korea, with Korean resistance.
At Yalta, the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China are given a shared "trusteeship" over Korea. Intended as temporary administrative measure until democratic elections are held.
Japan surrenders. U.S. proposes the establishment of the 38th parallel: North of it, Japanese forces surrender to the Soviets; south of it, they surrender to the Americans.
Foreign ministers of the Allied powers meet in Moscow. A five-year trusteeship ...view middle of the document...
S.'s security sphere in Asia.
June 25, 1950:
On Sunday, June 25, before daylight, 135,000 North Korean troops cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea in an all-out surprise attack. The United States requests an immediate meeting of the UN Security Council. With the Soviets boycotting the Council, the Council meets that afternoon and adopts a resolution demanding an immediate end to hostilities and the withdrawal of North Korean forces to above the 38th parallel.
June 25, 1950:
President Truman orders General of the Army Douglas MacArthur to evacuate American dependents from Korea, supply ROK forces, and survey how best to help South Korea.
June 26, 1950:
Truman authorizes MacArthur to use air and naval forces against North Korean targets below the 38th parallel. Truman also directs the Seventh Fleet to the straits between Taiwan and mainland China, hoping to discourage a widening of hostilities.
June 27, 1950:
UN Security Council asks UN members to furnish military assistance to the ROK. Truman authorizes U.S. air and naval forces to hit North Korea above the 38th parallel, and authorizes ground troops to protect Pusan, Korea's major port located on the south-eastern tip of the peninsula.
June 29, 1950:
MacArthur flies to Korea to assess the situation on the ground.
June 28, 1950:
North Korean troops capture Seoul, South Korea's capital and the largest city on the peninsula.
June 28-29, 1950:
North Korean troops cross the Han river, immediately to the south of Seoul.
June 30, 1950:
Truman authorizes MacArthur to use all forces available to him in the defence of the Republic.
July 4, 1950:
Task Force Smith airlifted from Japan to Pusan, South Korea. MacArthur intended the 540-man Task Force Smith as "an arrogant display of force."
July 5, 1950:
Battle of Osan. The first battle of the war between the North Koreans and American troops. Vastly outnumbered and ill-equipped, Task Force Smith loses 185 soldiers, virtually all equipment -- and retreats.
July 7, 1950:
UN asks the U.S. to form a United Nations force, and to pick a commander -- recognizing that the U.S. would be the major backer. Truman is the chief executive agent of the Security Council, and MacArthur becomes the commander.
July 13, 1950:
Lt. General Walton H. Walker assumes command of all ground forces on the peninsula.
The 24th Division is forced back on Taejon, sixty miles below Osan, where Task Force Smith first confronted the North Korean troops. Taejon is a city of 120,000; it is considered the gateway to the remainder of South Korea and strategically crucial.
July 13-20, 1950:
Battle of Taejon. In difficult fighting, the 24th Division defends Taejon for several days, buying time for the other U.S. forces to establish themselves.
U.S. achieves air and naval supremacy and establishes a naval blockade.
July 22-August 1, 1950:
American and ROK troops continue retreat until the Naktong river, the last natural...