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Kirkpatricks Four Levels Of Evaluation Essay

4721 words - 19 pages

Abstract
Este artigo descreve o modelo dos quatro níveis de avaliação da formação de Kirkpatrick e as razões da sua popularidade. São apontadas algumas limitações do modelo e são identificadas três assunções problemáticas: cada um dos níveis fornece informação mais importante do que o anterior; os níveis estão ligados por uma relação causal; e os níveis estão positivamente relacionados, sendo ainda apresentadas as soluções para ultrapassar essas assunções. São revistos alguns estudos-chave no sentido de tentar perceber as razões da longevidade do modelo mais utilizado na avaliação da formação.

Abstract
This article describes Kirkpatrick’s four-level training evaluation model and the ...view middle of the document...

Na década de noventa os quatro níveis continuavam a ser reconhecidos por muitos praticantes como o modelo de referência quando se pretende avaliar a formação (Holton, 1996) e actualmente o modelo ainda é considerado o mais popular de entre os muitos modelos de avaliação da formação existentes (Bates, 2004).

Apesar de ser o modelo mais conhecido e mais utilizado quando o que está em causa é avaliar a formação e de ser possível elencar uma série de razões que contribuem para a sua popularidade, isso não impediu que tenha sido alvo de inúmeras críticas: desde negar-lhe a qualidade de modelo e de o considerar um simples taxonomia; até à identificação de três assunções problemáticas: cada um dos níveis fornece informação mais importante do que o anterior; os níveis estão ligados por uma relação causal; e os níveis estão positivamente relacionados. No seguimento destas críticas, inúmeros modelos alternativos têm sido propostos.

Este artigo visa desenvolver uma análise crítica ao modelo dos quatro níveis de avaliação da formação de Kirkpatrick que permita reconhecer os seus pontos fortes e fracos, perceber as razões da sua longevidade e identificar modelos alternativos que com ele possam vir a competir a nível de popularidade e de utilização quando se pretende avaliar a formação.

O modelo dos quatro níveis de avaliação da formação de Kirkpatrick

No seu modelo, Kirkpatrick propõe que a avaliação da formação seja feita sequencialmente a quatro níveis: reacção dos formandos; aprendizagem; comportamentos; e resultados. A informação recolhida em cada nível contribuirá para preparar o nível seguinte que é mais complexo e proporciona informações mais valiosas, sendo mais oneroso, do que o nível imediatamente anterior. Nos textos originais, cada categoria era chamada de “passo” (no original: step), embora se tenha generalizado o termo “nível” em substituição do primeiro.

Gomes et tal (2008) sintetizam alguns dos principais aspectos do modelo dos quatro níveis, a saber:

Nível Um – Reacção – Procura-se recolher informação referente à opinião dos participantes na formação, nomeadamente sobre materiais, formador, metodologias pedagógicas, conteúdos, etc. O informante-chave é o próprio participante na formação e o meio mais popularmente utilizado é o questionário (conhecido por happy sheets), preenchido imediatamente após a formação.

Nível Dois – Aprendizagem – Avalia-se a eficácia da formação em termos dos resultados da aprendizagem (conhecimentos, competências e atitudes). Analisa-se o grau de mudança de atitudes, a melhoria de conhecimento e/ou o aumento das capacidades como resultado da participação no programa de formação. O participante na formação não constitui o informante-chave per se, mas o veículo de mudança e observação, usando-se geralmente testes administrados após a formação.

Nível Três – Comportamento – Avalia-se em que medida as competências técnicas ou sociais adquiridas durante a formação são transferidas para o posto de...

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