kindey dMs. Jones, a 68-year-old female, underwent open heart surgery to replace several blocked vessels in her heart. On her first day postoperatively, it was noted that she had very little urine output.
Answer questions 1-8 below. In each scenario, the patient is experiencing renal failure.
1. What is happening to Ms. Jones’s kidneys, and why is it causing the observed symptom? when a person produces less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours, this defines decreased urine output (Northwestern Memorial Hospital, 2007). Ischemia, hemorrhage, poisons, and severe kidney disease may cause renal failure.
2. What other symptoms and signs might occur? Lethargy, weakness, ...view middle of the document...
Medications that can help control issues associated with kidney failure: Phosphorus-lowering medications (Caltrate, Rocaltrol, and Renagel), red blood cell production stimulation (Aranesp) and iron supplements, blood pressure medications, and vitamins. If the underlying issues are treated, the kidney function can be preserved.
Scenario B: Chronic renal failure.
Mr. Hodges, a 73-year-old man, has had congestive
heart failure for the past 5 years. His doctor has told him that his heart is not functioning well, needing more and more medicine to maintain circulatory function. He has noticed that he is not urinating more than once a day.
5. Why is the condition of Mr. Hodges’s kidneys affecting the rest of his body? Decreases in renal function can have harmful effects causing significant occurrence or death in patients with congestive heart failure as well as the cardiovascular occurrences and death increases in patients with mild chronic renal insufficiency (Medscape, 2008).
6. As his chronic renal failure worsens, what other symptoms and signs might occur in his respiratory, digestive, nervous, and urinary systems? “Chronic renal failure is life-threatening, with a much poorer prognosis than acute renal failure” (Mulvihill et.al, 2006). “Metabolic wastes accumulate in the blood with adverse effects on all the systems” (Mulvihill, et. al, 2006). Examples include urea building to toxic levels converting some to ammonia irritating the gastrointestinal tract(causing ammonia taste in mouth, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea). Drowsiness, dim vision, decrease in congnative functions with convulsions or coma can result. The respiratory system will cause deep, sighing respiration and a urine smell to breath. The urinary system manifests to Pyuria, hematuria, albuminuria, and casts. (Mulvihill, et.al, 2006)
7. What is causing Mr. Hodges’s kidney disease?...