Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease that destroys the function of the human kidneys. This purpose of this research paper is to present an introductory profile of the disease. The profile includes a description of the disease, leading causes, how it is diagnosed, and its stages. Current statistics of the individuals impacted by the disease and mortality are provided. This paper will also explain the progressive nature of the disease and how the kidneys are damaged. Finally, the treatment goals and actions for the different stages of the disease are laid forth.
Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidneys are vital organs that regulate the body’s ...view middle of the document...
73m2 for a period of time no less than 3 months, then stage one of CKD is in occurrence. When the GFR is found to be 15 mL/minute per 1.73m2, then stage five has been reached and the kidneys can no longer support life (Lewis, 2012). Stage five is also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and either dialysis or a kidney transplant is required (Jha et al., 2013). Urinalysis is used to perform the basic testing to determine the presence and severity of CKD (Ackland, Goldsmith, & Jayawardene, 2013). Also, an ultrasound may be performed when abnormal function is detected. An ultrasound can detect shrinkage of the kidney, which is a characteristic of CKD (Lewis, 2012). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the most common causes of CKD (Jha et al., 2013).
According to the National Kidney Foundation, 26 million adults in the United States currently have kidney disease, which is over 10 percent of the population (Fast Facts, 2015). Additionally, a third of the population is at risk for developing kidney disease. A publication by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that over 110,000 people in the U.S. began treatment for ESRD in 2011 ("National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2014," 2014). The publication also states that African Americans are over three and half times more likely to develop stage five CKD than whites; while Hispanics are one and a half times as likely. In the United States, kidney disease is 9th on the list of causes of death and, annually, it kills more people than do prostate or breast cancer (Fast Facts, 2015).
Chronic kidney disease causes a loss of operational nephrons, which are the kidney’s functional unit (Haynes & Winearls, 2010). Each kidney has approximately one million nephrons, with each nephron containing a glomerulus and a renal tubule (Lewis, 2012). The glomerulus acts as a filter, passing the filtrate to the renal tubule, where waste secretion and water reabsorption occurs (Tortura, 2012). About 25% of blood pumped from the heart goes to the kidneys for glomerular filtration. This is the reason that kidneys are highly vulnerable to diseases that impact vascular endothelium, such as diabetes and hypertension (Lewis, 2012). These vascular diseases damage the glomerulus, causing blood vessels to be supplanted with amorphous collagen, stopping the flow of blood and, thereby, filtration (Lewis, 2012). This condition is called glomerulosclerosis and the damage to the glomeruli is irreversible. When glomerulosclerosis occurs, whether from a vascular disease or other kidney injury, functional nephrons increase blood flow to glomeruli in order to preserve the glomerular filtration rate (Haynes & Winearls, 2010). Hypertension is created within the healthy glomeruli by the increased blood flow, causing them to become damaged in the same manner (Lewis, 2012). In addition to the glomerulosclerosis, there is usually dysfunction in the renal tubule, caused by the increased...