Kebakatan Essay

1446 words - 6 pages

Pengertian Bakat
sebenarnya apa sih bakat itu? Apakah saya punya bakat? Makhluk semesterius apa sih bakat itu? Dimana bakat saya? Bagaimana cara menemukannya? Kepada siapa sebetulnya saya harus bertanya tentang bakat saya? Dan seterusnya.
Sebelum kita membahas pertanyaan-pertanyaan semacam di atas, saya ingin mengatakan bahwa bakat menurut penjelasan teoritisnya memang punya wilayah bahasan yang cukup luas. Di dalam literatur ilmiah, ada istilah talent, ada istilah giftedness, ada istilah traits, ada istilah intelligence seperti dalam “multiple intelligence, aptitude, dan seterusnya. Selain harus berurusan dengan istilah-istilah yang mungkin tidak dimengerti bagi kebanyakan orang, pun juga ...view middle of the document...

Masih banyak kemampuan alamiah manusia yang belum atau tidak bisa dijabarkan. Dan lagi, kalau kita perhatikan praktek hidup, amat sangat jarang ada orang yang hanya diberi satu kemampuan dari daftar di atas. Dalam diri setiap manusia ada sekian kemampuan dari daftar di atas. Orang yang hebat di bidang IT tidak berarti hanya dibekali kemampuan tekun dalam meng-otak-atik komputer. Ia juga punya kemauan keras, punya disiplin, kreatif, mau mempelajari hal-hal baru dan seterusnya. Seorang tokoh agama tidak berarti hanya dibekali kemampuan spiritual sensibility saja. Ia juga punya kemampuan lain yang mendukung keunggulannya, seperti verbal, sosial, dan lain-lain.
Hal lain yang perlu kita ingat adalah penjelasan Dr. Sternberg, pakar Psikologi dari Yale University (Practical Intelligence, John Meunier, Fall, 2003)). Selama bertahun-tahun mengkaji kemampuan manusia, ia berkesimpulan bahwa kemampuan manusia itu bukanlah sebuah kemampuan yang sifatnya sudah baku pada satu bentuk atau titik tertentu (not fixed ability), tetapi sebuah kemampuan yang sifatnya terus berkembang (developing abilities).
Diposkan oleh kiki di 05.54
Definisi menurut USOE (United States Office of Education), anak berbakat adalah anak-anak yang dapat membuktikan kemampuan berprestasinya yang tinggi dalam bidang-bidang seperti intelektual, kreatif, artistik, kapasitas kepemimpinan atau akademik spesifik, dan mereka yang membutuhkan pelayanan atau aktivitas yang tidak sama dengan yang disediakan di sekolah sehubungan dengan penemuan kemampuan-kemampuannya (Hawadi, 2002).
Renzulli, dkk (dalam Munandar, 1992) dari hasil-hasil penelitiannya menarik kesimpulan bahwa yang menentukan keberbakatan seseorang pada hakikatnya tiga kelompok ciri-ciri sebagai berikut :
1) Kemampuan di atas rata-rata
2) Kreativitas
3) Pengikatan diri atau tanggung jawab terhadap tugas (task commitment)

Keberbakatan merupakan interaksi antara kemampuan umum dan atau spesifik, tingkat tanggung jawab terhadap tugas yang tinggi dan tingkat kreativitas yang tinggi (Renzulli dalam Hawadi, 2002). Renzulli melihat bahwa orang yang berprestasi adalah orang yang mampu memberikan sumbangan kreatif dan prestasi yang sama baiknya dalam tiga kluster yang saling terkait. Renzulli menegaskan tidak satupun kluster yang membuat keberbakatan selain adanya interaksi antara tiga kluster tersebut yang didalam studi-studi terdahulu menjadi resep yang dilakukan untuk tercapainya prestasi kreatif-produktif (Renzulli dalam Hawadi, 2002).
Sedangkan menurut Depdiknas (2003) anak berbakat adalah mereka yang oleh psikolog dan/atau guru diindentifikasi sebagai peserta didik yang telah mencapai prestasi memuaskan, dan memiliki kemampuan intelektual umum yang berfungsi pada taraf cerdas, kreativitas yang memadai, dan keterikatan terhadap tugas yang tergolong baik.
Para ahli menyampaikan batasan yang berbeda mengenai skor inteligensi. Vernon (dalam Munandar, 1982) mengemukakan bahwa IQ 130 ke atas lebih disarankan untuk...

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