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K Language Essay

3293 words - 14 pages

I.HANGUL ALPHABET SYSTEM
Vowels : - |   |   |
ㅏ | ㅑ | ㅓ | ㅕ | ㅗ |
"a" | "ya" | "eo" | "yeo" | "o" |
  |   |   |   |   |
| | | | |
ㅛ | ㅜ | ㅠ | ㅡ | ㅣ |
"yo" | "oo" or "u" | "yoo" or "yu" | "eu" | "i" |
  |   |   |
Consonants : - | | |
ㄱ | ㄴ | ㄷ | ㄹ | ㅁ |
"g" or "k" | "n" | "d" or "t" | " r " or " l " | "m" |
  |   |   |   |   |
| | | | |
ㅂ | ㅅ | ㅇ | ㅈ | ㅊ |
"b" or "p" | "s" | - | " ch " | " ch' " |
  |   |   |   |   |
| | | | |
ㅋ | ㅌ | ㅍ | ㅎ | |
" g' " or " k' " | " d' " | " p' " | " h " | |

Note that " ' " means the letter is aspirated, i.e a sharp sound. |

ㅎ + | ㅏ + | ㄴ = | 한 | han |   |
h | a | n |   |   |   |
  |   |   | ...view middle of the document...

ㅁ + ㅏ + ㄴ = 만
m + a + n = man
IV.GRAMMAR
Korean Names
In general, Korean names consist of 3 syllables.
The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim, Lee and Pak ), it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. In Korean, the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin.
When you are referring to someone who you know well, then you may be able to refer to them directly, such as using their first name. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with, or am meeting for the first time, then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. An example of this would be Doojin-ssi
Making Polite Sentences
With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-, ha- and sa- , it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words, such as Kayo ( which means "to go", or "I go" or "he goes" ). Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements, questions, suggestions or commands, and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. For example, Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is, or can be a question stating that you are fine. Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo.
V.KOREAN SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND WORD ORDER
In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences, for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English.
In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject - object - verb
"Jon the ball kicked"

"To Go" in order to do sentences
There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences, these include -yo which makes sentences polite, and -ro which means "in order to".
In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised.
The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go"
In Korean unlike English, the subject of the sentences is optional like "I", then the "in order section" is next, which is then followed by "the place you are going".
(In English) | I | go to the shops | in-order -to buy bread |
(in Korean) | I (optional) | bread buy - in-order to | shops to go |
The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go).

* The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences.

VI.ASKING FOR THINGS
There Are / There is
The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 )
They are dependent on the context in which you use them, and on what you are talking about. The stem of the verb is iss- with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo, thus forming the ending -oyo. However in the case where the...

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