Journal Example Essay

4030 words - 17 pages

Bisnis & Birokrasi, Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi dan Organisasi, Mei—Agus 2010, hlm. 114-126
ISSN 0854-3844

Volume 17, Nomor 2

Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Membentuk Loyalitas Pelanggan
DWI ARYANI1* dan FEBRINA ROSINTA2**
1

PT Human Resource Development Institute

2

Program Studi Ilmu Administrasi Departemen FISIP, Universitas Indonesia

Abstract. The aim of the research is to analyze how the service quality can affect customer’s satisfaction in shaping costumer’s loyalty. The research is quantitative and uses non-probability purposive sampling technique. The instrument of the research uses questionnaires which were analyzed with Structural ...view middle of the document...

, 2004). Pada jangka pendek, memperbaiki loyalitas pelanggan akan membawa profit pada penjualan. Profit merupakan motif utama konsistensi bisnis, karena dengan keuntungan maka roda perputaran bisnis dari variasi produk dan jasa yang ditawarkan maupun perluasan pasar yang dilayani (Soeling, 2007). Dalam jangka panjang, memperbaiki loyalitas umumnya akan lebih profitabel, yakni pelanggan bersedia membayar harga lebih tinggi, penyediaan layanan yang lebih murah dan bersedia merekomendasikan ke pelanggan yang baru (“Managing Customer”, 1995). Kepuasan pelanggan merupakan kunci dalam menciptakan loyalitas pelanggan. Banyak manfaat yang
*Korespondensi: +6221 985 746 32atau +628159578448; dwi.aryanti@yahoo.com **Korespondensi: febrina.rosinta09@ui.ac.id

diterima oleh perusahaan dengan tercapainya tingkat kepuasan pelanggan yang tinggi, yakni selain dapat meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan tapi juga dapat mencegah terjadinya perputaran pelanggan, mengurangi sensitivitas pelanggan terhadap harga, mengurangi biaya kegagalan pemasaran, mengurangi biaya operasi yang diakibatkan oleh meningkatnya jumlah pelanggan, meningkatkan efektivitas iklan, dan meningkatkan reputasi bisnis (Fornell, 1992). Keputusan perusahaan melakukan tindakan perbaikan pelayanan yang sistematis merupakan payung yang menentukan dalam menindaklanjuti komplain konsumen dari suatu kegagalan sehingga pada akhirnya mampu mengikat loyalitasi konsumen (Elu, 2005). Kepuasan pelanggan menjadi parameter penting sehingga bisnis dapat terus berkelanjutan. Sebuah riset tahun 2004 yang dilakukan oleh J.D. Power, perusahaan spesialis pengukur kepuasan pelanggan dalam industri otomotif, membuktikan bahwa perusahaan yang berhasil meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan dalam jangka waktu lima tahun (1999-2004) mengalami kenaikan nilai bagi pemegang sahamnya sebesar +52%. Sebaliknya, perusahaan yang mengalami penurunan nilai kepuasan pelanggan, pemegang sahamnya juga mengalami penurunan nilai sebesar -28%. Riset Claes Fornell juga membuktikan, di masa krisis 2008, saham perusahaan dengan Indeks Kepuasan Pelanggan Amerika (American Customer Satisfaction Index/ACSI) yang baik, hanya menurun -33%, sedangkan perusahaan dengan indeks yang buruk menurun -55%. Jadi, kepuasan konsumen bukan saja berharga di masa ekonomi baik, tetapi juga di saat ekonomi buruk (Lestari, 2009). Menurut para akademisi, kepuasan pelanggan merupakan konstruk yang berdiri sendiri dan

115

Bisnis & Birokrasi, Jurnal Ilmu Administrasi dan Organisasi, Mei—Agus 2010, hlm. 114-126

Pernah Membeli

Pernah membeli dalam 6 bulan terakhir

Pernah membeli dalam 4 minggu terakhir
Gambar 1. Persentase Pembelian Makanan Cepat Saji di Jakarta (Hingga Maret 2009) Sumber: Purnadi, 2009

dipengaruhi oleh kualitas layanan (Oliver, 1980). Kualitas layanan juga dapat mempengaruhi loyalitas pelanggan secara langsung (Zeithaml dkk., 1996) dan mempengaruhi loyalitas pelanggan secara tidak langsung melalui kepuasan (Caruana, 2002). Kualitas layanan...

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