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John Gokongwei Success Story Question Essay

2220 words - 9 pages

1. Culture is organic and supra-organic: It is organic
when we consider the fact that there is no culture
without human society. It is supra organic, because
it is far beyond any individual lifetime. Individuals
come and go, but culture remains and persists
Calhoun (op cit).

2. Culture is overt and covert: It is generally divided
into material and non-material cultures. Material
culture consists of any tangible human made objects
such as tools, automobiles, buildings, etc. Non-
material culture consists of any non-physical aspects
like language, belief, ideas, knowledge, attitude,
values, etc.

3. Culture is explicit and implicit: It is explicit when we
...view middle of the document...

7. Culture is symbolic: It is based on the purposeful
creation and usage of symbols; it is exclusive to
humans. Symbolic thought is unique and crucial to
humans and to culture. Symbolic thought is the
human ability to give a thing or event an arbitrary
meaning and grasp and appreciate that meaning
Symbols are the central components of culture.
Symbols refer to anything to which people attach
meaning and which they use to communicate with
others. More specifically, symbols are words,
objects, gestures, sounds or images that represent
something else rather than themselves. Symbolic
thought is unique and crucial to humans and to
culture. It is the human ability to give a thing or event
an arbitrary meaning and grasp and appreciate that
meaning. There is no obvious natural or necessary
connection between a symbol and what it
symbolizes (Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Macionis,
1997).

Culture thus works in the symbolic domain
emphasizing meaning, rather than the
technical/practical rational side of human behavior.
All actions have symbolic content as well as being
action in and of themselves. Things, actions,
behaviors, etc, always stand for something else than
merely, the thing itself.
Components of Culture
Culture includes within itself elements that make up the
essence of a society or a social group. The major ones
include: Symbols, values, norms, and language (See
Henslin and Nelson, 1995; Calhoun et al. 1994).

Symbols
Symbols are the central components of culture. Symbols
refer to anything to which people attach meaning and
which they use to communicate with others. More
specifically, symbols are words, objects, gestures,
sounds or images that represent something else rather
than themselves. Symbolic thought is unique and crucial
to humans and to culture. It is the human ability to give a
thing or event an arbitrary meaning and grasp and
appreciate that meaning. There is no obvious natural or
necessary connection between a symbol and what it
symbolizes.

Language
Language, specifically defined as a system of verbal
and in many cases written symbols with rules about how
those symbols can be strung together to convey more
complex meanings, is the distinctive capacity and
possession of humans; it is a key element of culture.
Culture encompasses language, and through language,
culture is communicated and transmitted. Without
language it would be impossible to develop, elaborate
and transmit culture to the future generation.

Values
Values are essential elements of non-material culture.
They may be defined as general, abstract guidelines for
our lives, decisions, goals, choices, and actions. They
are shared ideas of a groups or a society as to what is
right or wrong, correct or incorrect, desirable or
undesirable, acceptable or unacceptable, ethical or
unethical, etc., regarding something. They are general
road maps for our...

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