This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Jobs Careers And Callings Essay

5900 words - 24 pages

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY
ARTICLE NO.

31, 21–33 (1997)

RP972162

Jobs, Careers, and Callings: People’s Relations to Their Work
Amy Wrzesniewski
University of Michigan

Clark McCauley
Bryn Mawr College

Paul Rozin
University of Pennsylvania

and
Barry Schwartz
Swarthmore College
We present evidence suggesting that most people see their work as either a Job
(focus on financial rewards and necessity rather than pleasure or fulfillment; not a
major positive part of life), a Career (focus on advancement), or a Calling (focus
on enjoyment of fulfilling, socially useful work). Employees at two work sites (n
ϭ 196) with a wide range of occupations from clerical to professional were ...view middle of the document...

Quality of life, in
turn, can have a major effect on life stress and on health (Adler & Matthews,
1994). There is strong evidence for the belief that dispositional factors are
related to job attitudes (Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986; Staw & Ross, 1985).
This suggests that the way individuals view work may be a function of stable
traits, not just reflections of the work itself. It is possible that these traits
interact with the objective characteristics of the work (Hackman & Oldham,
1980; Hulin & Blood, 1968; Schneider, 1983). For these reasons, we believe
it is important to understand the subjective experience of work: how individuals differ in their experience of the work they do.
The inspiration for our approach came from Habits of the Heart, in which
Bellah et al. (1985) argue that there are three distinct relations people can
have to their work: as Jobs, Careers, and Callings (see also Schwartz, 1986,
1994). The distinctions, drawn starkly, are these: People who have Jobs are
only interested in the material benefits from work and do not seek or receive
any other type of reward from it. The work is not an end in itself, but instead
is a means that allows individuals to acquire the resources needed to enjoy
their time away from the Job. The major interests and ambitions of Job holders are not expressed through their work. In contrast, people who have Careers have a deeper personal investment in their work and mark their achievements not only through monetary gain, but through advancement within the
occupational structure. This advancement often brings higher social standing, increased power within the scope of one’s occupation, and higher selfesteem for the worker (Bellah et al., 1985, p. 66). Finally, people with Callings find that their work is inseparable from their life. A person with a Calling
works not for financial gain or Career advancement, but instead for the fulfillment that doing the work brings to the individual. The word ‘‘calling’’
was originally used in a religious context, as people were understood to be
‘‘called’’ by God to do morally and socially significant work (see Weber,
1956, 1963). While the modern sense of ‘‘calling’’ may have lost its religious
connection (but see Davidson & Caddell, 1994, for evidence that the religious connection still matters), work that people feel called to do is usually
seen as socially valuable—an end in itself—involving activities that may,
but need not be, pleasurable.
The Job–Career–Calling distinction is not necessarily dependent upon occupation. Within any occupation, one could conceivably find individuals
with all three kinds of relations to their work. Although one might expect
to find a higher number of Callings among those in certain occupations, for
example, teachers and Peace Corps employees, it is plausible that salespersons, medical technicians, factory workers, and secretaries could view their
work as a Calling. Such people could love their work and think that it contributes to making the...

Other Papers Like Jobs Careers and Callings

Conventional Practices of Formal Learning No Longer Apply to the Masses: Informal Hands-on Learning Induces Notable Results

1299 words - 6 pages work blue-collar jobs within the service sector and others will become white-collar workers possibly owning their own successful businesses. Nonetheless, it is imperative for educational institutions to adhere to the callings of their students. Education should be viewed as a humanistic experience – given its nature of student affairs and welfare, and as a consumer product – given its nature of being marketed to students as something of prestige

Naps Aren't Just For Little Kids

1082 words - 5 pages done. We all have busy lives with our own personal affairs going on. If we learn to manage our time wisely, we can find time to do almost anything. Most people have jobs before and/or after their classes, some have church callings that require preparation outside of church, some people are just taking too many classes. It’s so easy to get distracted with whatever it is you happen to be doing at the moment and completely forget about everything

Why I Decided to Further My Education

664 words - 3 pages obtain better paying jobs. They say that without a degree non-graduates will have to settle for the lower paying positions within a company. According to Altaf Sahibzada, author of High Paying Jobs with MBA Degrees – The Right Business Education, “It is estimated that MBA salaries are generally higher by about 35 per cent than regular graduates. They hold prestigious jobs. They position their businesses strategically and help in the growth of

Psychology vs. Teaching

705 words - 3 pages two fascinating careers to observe and pursue. They both have their similarities and differences. They may have different paying jobs but it all depends on what the person wants to pursue and how serious the person is to pursue that career. I would personally pick a career of becoming a psychologist because it pays much more and has the study of personality. Being able to compare and contrast teaching and psychology has shown me that both are interesting.

Steve Jobs

1191 words - 5 pages Jobs as the guy who thought that everything I was working on was crap.”( Deatherage, M. (2011). pg 52). Steve Jobs also “ attracted the best people and motivated them to do better than their best, rallying teams to work in a harmony they may never find elsewhere in their careers. He remains my archetype for the charismatic visionary leader, with his life's song forever part of Apple”.( Jurvetson, S. (2011). As I read many of the journals and

Graduation Plan

290 words - 2 pages : 2019 Involvement: Involvement: Involvement: The skills that I need to develop to be the most qualified candidate for this career are: 1. . . . 1 The types of jobs I would qualify to apply for when finished with this degree are AND their salaries are: 1. ÿ; . 1 m s. I feel this major and the careers/jobs associated with it fit me because... (Talk about the strengths you have that go along with this major/career.) 1. o o t Se

Young Adults Fighting Unemployment

667 words - 3 pages many reasons of my own as well as others. When graduating from high or college, young adults look for jobs to jump start their careers. Without the workforce taking them in and trusting them, business owners take away the dreams of the young adults. To get the young adults out there in the workforce we will need to realize what group is jeopardy, what organizations that can help, and the action we should take. The unemployment rate is

Why Pursue a Career in Accounting

1306 words - 6 pages supervise their expenses and profits, and calculating earnings and costs. Even after finding Accounting jobs recently or earlier ; my colleges at work can improve their careers greatly by obtaining more qualifications; for example the Chartered Accountant qualification (CA), and Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). Consequently; as I observe around the Finance department; their plans seems fixed as their numbers! They had it all

Letter Cover

679 words - 3 pages heaps more cover letter and resume templates, check out Youth Central's Applying for Jobs pages at youthcentral.vic.gov.au/Jobs+&+Careers/Applying+for+jobs/[->0] Joanne Tint Email: joannetint@xmail.com Mobile: XXX XXXX XXXX Mr Allan Moyle Pride Family Jewellers Phone: XX XXXX XXXX Email: enquiries@pridefamilyjewellers.com.au 23 April 2013 RE: Application for Retail Assistant position Dear Mr. Moyle, As a young, motivated

Carrer Paper

810 words - 4 pages title. Planners must have good communication skills and be able to work under pressure (Top Careers for Communications Graduates 115), all of these skills I know I have and will I know I can work hard to archive my dream. Since there are no courses in high school to really prepare a person. It would be a smart idea to take high school classes in business, English, and speech It also would be a good idea to take a foreign language or two (Top

Math geometry essay

1150 words - 5 pages €¢ Clearly state your controlling idea Organize and develop your explanation effectively Choose your words carefully Use correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and sentences Composing Expository Writing Day 1 Prompt: WRITE an essay explaining the importance of never giving up. Band Steve Jobs •Prompt/Topic. •Reasons Career Never Giving Up Athletic s Helen Keller Academics •Students complete

Related Essays

Kent Chemical Essay

1651 words - 7 pages , 117-123. Rice , R. W. Gentile , D. A. McFarlin , D. B. (1991). Facet importance and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 31-39. Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 21-33. Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning at work. In K. Cameron, J.E. Dutton, & R.E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship, (pp. 296-308). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Business Field Essay

587 words - 3 pages Sales Right For You? * National Association of Sales Professionals (NASP) * Sales Careers, Jobs & Training Information * Securities, Commodities and Financial Services Sales Agents * Top Sales Careers for Women * United Professional Sales Association Social Entrepreneurship / Corporate Responsibility * Business Ethics: The Magazine of Corporate Social Responsibility * Business for Social Responsibility (BSR

Fagin`s Character In Charles Dickens` “Oliver Twist”

1010 words - 5 pages Fagin`s Character in Charles Dickens` “Oliver Twist” Characters are one of the most significant features that writers use to express their thoughts and illustrate their messages. These characters may be good or bad depending on the characterization given to them by the writers. In other words, the goodness or evilness of a character is determined by the way the writers depict the character`s physical appearance, speech, behavior or reaction

A Descriptive Title Essay

1275 words - 6 pages college. 5. What particular statement made by the author would you like to disagree with? Why? (use bubble map in answering) 6. What do you think is/are the real purpose/s of college education? Why? (use concept map) Explanation: In college, students establish the intellectual foundations for their careers, and it is when they have the freedom to explore paths their lives might take. It is the rare student who comes to us with a