Job performance is the set of employee behaviors that contribute to organizational goal accomplishment. It has three components: 1) task performance, or the transformation of resources into goods and services; 2) citizenship behaviors, or voluntary employee actions that contribute to the organization; and 3) counterproductive behaviors, or employee actions that hinder organizational accomplishments. This chapter discusses trends that affect job performance in today’s organizations, as well as practices that organizations can use to manage job performance.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions:
2.1 What ...view middle of the document...
Adaptive task performance involves responses to novel or unusual task demands
c. Creative task performance involves developing ideas or physical products that are both novel and useful
2. Job analysis can be used to define task performance for different jobs
a. List the activities done on the job
b. Use “subject matter experts” to rate each activity on importance and frequency
c. Select the activities that are rated highly on importance and frequency and use them to describe the job
d. Job analysis results can be used to create the tools managers need to evaluate job performance
e. O*NET (the Occupational Information Network) is an online database that provides job descriptions for most jobs
i. Information from O*NET needs to be supplemented to capture organizational values and strategies
3. Task performance behaviors are not simply “performed” or “not performed” – the best employees exceed performance expectations by going the extra mile on the job
B. Citizenship Behavior
1. Citizenship behavior is defined as voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded, but contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in which the work takes place
a. Interpersonal citizenship behavior involves assisting and supporting coworkers in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations. Helping, courtesy, and sportsmanship are all interpersonal citizenship behaviors
b. Organizational citizenship behavior involves supporting and defending the organization through voice (offering supportive ideas for change), civic virtue (participating in company activities at a deeper-than-normal level), and boosterism (representing the company in a positive way in public.)
c. Citizenship behaviors are relevant for all jobs, and provide clear benefits to the effectiveness of work groups and organizations
d. Citizenship behaviors become more vital during organizational crises
C. Counterproductive Behavior
1. Counterproductive behaviors intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishments
a. Property deviance harms an organizations assets and possessions and can include sabotage and theft
b. Production deviance reduces the efficiency of work output, and includes wasting resources and substance abuse
c. Political deviance refers to behaviors that harm individuals within the organization, and can include gossiping and incivility
d. Personal aggression involves hostile verbal and physical actions taken towards other employees. Examples are harassment and abuse.
D. Summary: What Does it Mean to be a Good Performer?
III. Workplace Trends that Affect Job Performance
A. Knowledge Work
1. Jobs that involve cognitive activity are becoming more prevalent than jobs that involve physical activity