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Jean Watson's Theory Of Human Caring

3050 words - 13 pages

Dr. Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring was released in 1979, and has continued to evolve over the past three decades. Watson's theory describes a philosophical foundation for nursing, which puts caring at the center of practice. It focuses on patient centered care, with emphasis on developing a trusting mutual bond. The caring environment allows for optimal health promotion, growth, empowerment, and disease prevention. The present paper discusses the theory's main concepts, and the significance of the model to nurses, nurse practioners, and health organizations. As well as, how the theory applies to my personal nursing philosophy.

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Her theory stresses the importance of a nurse/patient relationship, understanding the person's point of view, and developing a caring trusting mutual bond (Watson, 2009). Caring is essential to one's nursing practice, and according to Watson, “caring begins with being present, open to compassion, gentleness, mercy, loving, kindness, and composure towards the patient (2009).” However in order for the relationship to succeed, the nurse must accept their own needs and feelings, before they can offer compassionate care to others.

According to the Watson Caring Science Institute, the theory is comprised of eight concepts. These concepts are: the 10 carative factors, transpersonal caring relationship, caring occasion/caring moment, multiple ways of knowing, reflective/meditative approach, caring is inclusive, circular, and expansive, and caring changes others, and the culture of groups/environments (2010). However, according to Lachman, the three major elements that make up Watson's theory include: the 10 carative factors, transpersonal caring relationships, and the caring occasion/caring moment (2012).
The 10 carative factors are the foundation to the science of caring (Alligood and Tomey, 2010, p. 94). It is a guideline to help the nurse successfully establish a therapeutic healing environment, and foster a loving and caring relationship with the patient. However, according to Watson, the nurse must be able to incorporate more than just the 10 carative factors in their interactions with the patient to effectively promote health and prevent illness in the future (Alligood et al., 2010, p.96). The ten original carative factors include:
ο “Formation of a Humanistic altruistic System of Values” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Instillation of Faith- Hope” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Cultivation of Sensitivity to Self and Others” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)”
ο “Development of a Helping-Trust Relationship” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Promotion and Acceptance of the Expression of Positive and Negative Feelings” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Systematic Use of the Scientific Problem-Solving Method for decision making” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Promotion of Interpersonal Teaching-Learning” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Provision for Supportive, Protective, and Corrective Mental, Physical, Sociocultural, and Spiritual Environment” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 95)
ο “Assistance with Gratification of Human Needs” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 96)
ο Allowances for Existential- Phenomenological Forces” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 96)
As Watson's work continued to evolve, the 10 carative factors transitioned into the 10 caritas processes. The 10 caritas processes include:
ο “Practicing loving-kindness and equanimity within context of caring consciousness” (Alligood et al., 2010, p. 97).
ο “Being authentically present and enabling, and sustaining the deep...

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