Watson's Theory of Human Caring
Dr. Jean Watson, a native of West Virginia, began her career in 1961 where she graduated from the Lewis Gale School of Nursing in Roanoke, Virginia. She then moved to Colorado, where she now lives, to further her education. She attended the University of Colorado and received her Bachelor of Science in Nursing in 1964, then further pursued her Master’s degree in psychiatric-mental health nursing in 1966 and then on to obtain her Ph.D. in educational psychology and counseling in 1973. Today she serves as a legendary Professor of Nursing and holds an endowed Chair in Caring Science at the University of Colorado and is a Fellow in the American Academy of ...view middle of the document...
4. Helping-trust relationships: Develop a helping-trusting relationship by using congruence, warmth, and empathy.
5. Acceptance of feeling, both positive and negative: Accepting of others feelings can lead to understanding. Someone can accept someone’s expression by audio, visual or intuition. The nurse also needs to be supportive of these feelings.
6. Problem-solving for decision making: This method permits control and self-correction. “Creatively using all ways of being, knowing, and caring as integral parts of the nursing process” (Sitzman, 2007, p. 9).
7. Interpersonal teaching-learning: Understanding the learning process and how someone perceives the teaching is crucial to the healing process. The nurse needs to understand both sides and be able to know when to alter teaching for better perception.
8. Support and protection of mental, physical, cultural, and spiritual environment: The nurse can manipulate internal and external factors to provide protection. Not only is the physical environment a factor but also energy levels, peace, and comfort.
9. Gratification of needs: Gratification of needs is based on Maslow’s hierarchy to promote optimal health. Watson focuses on psychosocial, psychophysical, and biophysical needs. This is a conscious effort to satisfy the patients’ needs in a caring manner.
10. Acceptance of existential-phenomological forces: The nurse uses phenomenological analysis by understanding the patient’s frame of mind and how it is in reference. In other words, the nurse needs to view the situation through the patient’s eyes to have a better understanding and be able to develop a relationship.
“Her theory is based on a form of humanism and has its origins in metaphysics (philosophy of being and knowing)” (McCance, 1999, p. 1389). These carative factors uses a belief that all life interconnects and that the nurse can implements any or all of the carative factors in any setting or during any activity.
“A model of caring science that goes beyond an intellectualization of the topic invites us into a timeless yet timely space to revisit this perennial phenomenon of the human condition. When one considers knowledgeable human caring as a mandate for survival, this caring can be seen as the highest form of ethical commitment to patients, families, communities, society, civilization, and planet Earth. A caring science model is based on a deeply relational worldview that includes human-to-human relationships as well as human-to-environment relationships. This caring science seeks to honor the depth, humility, connection, compassion, responsibility, and concern for human welfare and optimal human development/evolution. It is a model that honors the paradox of differences and similarities that unite rather than separate our existence and experiences” (Watson, 2008, p. 58).
Transpersonal Caring relationship emerges from the 10 caritas. The transpersonal caring relationship is the nurses’ moral...