Running Head: DOMAIN NAME SERVERS AND INTERNET PROROCOL
Domain Name Servers and Internet Protocol
Domain Name System (DNS) is central to the Internet and networking. It converts the host name into an Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. Domain names are in alphabetic form easy for human to remember. Nonetheless, the World Wide Web (WWW) is run based on IP addresses. Therefore, without the DNS the internet would be very difficult to access. Today, there are two versions of IP 4 and 6 that use DNS. With the growing number of devices with internet IP address, IPv4 is running out of addresses and will eventually be replaced by IPv6. ...view middle of the document...
com”. Finally, it will search the authoritative name servers for “google.com” to get the IP address for the host www.google.com, and return the address to the client device (Vugt, 2007).
There are two versions of IP used today IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 is the most widely used to connect devices to the internet. It uses a 32-bit addresses, which put limitation to the number of address space to 4294967296 addresses. With the increase uses of the internet, and devices that connect to the internet this number will eventually run out. Thus, comes the need for IPv6 as a successor to IPv4. IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, that increase the pool of IP addresses to 79228162514264337593543950336 addresses (IBM, n.a.).
The differences between the implementation of DNS in IPv6 and IPv4
Beside the size difference, there are many other differences between IPv4 and IPv6. First, DNS database is a collection of resource records. Each of these resource records contains information about a specific IP address. IPv4 uses “A” resource records in DNS to map host name and IPv6 uses “AAAA”, also known as quad resource records, in DNS to map host names. Second, IPv4 header doesn’t have a defined structure that identifies the flow of packets for Quality of Service (QoS). On the other hand, IPv6 header has a good define structure that identifies the flow of packets and thus points it to the router (IBM, n.a.). Third, the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) in IPv4 requires a manual network configuration for each node attempting access to the internet. However, in IPv6, addresses can be automatically assigned using Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC). This means that the routers and switches will request the space versus the end nodes, and that will allow the device to get online faster and more efficiently (Donaldson, 2011). Fourth, in IPv4, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is optional, and it is used to identify the IPv4 address of the best default gateway. In IP6v the ICMP is a vital part. In addition to the router discovery messages in IPv4, IPv6 adds many more messages like multicast listener discovery messages and neighbor discovery messages. Fifth, IPv4 uses broadcast addresses, which mean that the packets would be sent to every host attached to the network, instead to only a specific host. In IPv6 there are no broadcast addresses. In its place, the IPv6 uses multicast scope addresses. That means that packet sent to multicast address is delivered to that address, and all the other hosts will not be bothered with that packet. Sixth, In IPv4 when a packet size is larger than the maximum transmission unit, it will be fragmented by the host before it can be sent over the network. There are couple of control fields in the IPv4 header to help when fragmentation is needed. The Flags which will point out if there are more fragments, and Fragment offset which identify the position of the fragment in the datagram. In IPv6 only the sender is allowed to...