Assignment 1: IPv4, IPv6, and DNS
December 19, 2014
IT530-01 Computer Networks
Professor: Dr. Thomas Watts, PhD, CISSP
DNS (Domain Name System) is crucial to the activity on the Internet. DNS provides components to resolve a hostname to an IP (Internet protocol) address. The resolution of a hostname occurs over a hierarchy of domain servers. These domain servers consist of name server knowledge for their explicit domain level. A section of the web address will include the domain level. DNS utilizes IP versions 4 (IPv4) and 6 (IPv6) to help resolve hostnames, and also establishes a connection between each host. The connection between the ...view middle of the document...
For example, most internal networks utilize DNS to translate friendly names of client computers and servers into IP addresses. Without the automatic name resolution humans would need to remember the IP addresses of computers, websites, and webpages. Functioning in this manner would be inconvenient to say the least. DNS has a standardized hierarchy that helps achieve its goal.
After reviewing DNS, it is apparent that name resolution is crucial to how Internet traffic flows. Specifically, how does DNS sustain Internet traffic flow in the most efficient way possible? DNS provides a crucial translation service because of an organized hierarchy. Microsoft (2008) advises that the engineering of DNS moves from a root domain, to a top-level domain, then a second-level domain, and lastly any subdomains (Microsoft, 2008, para. 8).
The root domain is the top in the hierarchy. For instance, in the web address “www.yahoo.com.”, the trailing dot is the highest level of the domain name. The next level would be the top-level domain. This domain relates to the organizational type, country, or region. Some familiar top-level domains are .edu, .gov, .com, and .net. Second-level names are registered individual or organization. For instance, in the address www.yahoo.com, yahoo would represent the second-level domain. This specific level of the DNS hierarchy is critical because the names have to be registered with a domain name registrar.
Subdomains are added in front of the second-level domain. It is a domain which is part of a bigger domain. For instance, in the Web address www.blog.domain.com, blog is the subdomain of domain.com. Subdomains are essential because they give a business or company the means to grow or expand a DNS tree in the organization. Companies can generate subdomains that speak for many things such as people, departments, product lines, businesses and many more. The goal subdomains, second level domains, and root domains is to connect to a machine, and this is where IP addressing and DNS come into play.
DNS and IP Address
After examining the DNS hierarchy we have learned that DNS is standardized and works well for organizations, businesses, or anyone who inclined to host a website. This exact structure will allow Web surfers to connect to the hosted websites. If there were not millions of devices in use then name resolution would be simple. To undertake the enduring job of translating names to devices, DNS has IP addresses that are used in Internet protocols.
A crucial aspect of IP addresses is the fact of them being unique which means each Internet website possesses a unique IP Address; this specific address allows users to input a Web address, and then DNS translates the website name to the specific IP address. To ensure IP addresses stay unique, the addresses are overseen by the IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) organization. The IANA is a domain name registry that keeps...