Is type 2 diabetes a public health emergency?
The term ‘diabetes mellitus’ describes a metabolic disorder of multiple causes characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrates , fats and protein metabolism which results in abnormal insulin secretion or/ and insulin action. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage dysfunction and failure of various organs (WHO).
Types of diabetes:
There are two main types of Diabetes:
* Type 1diabetes (T1B) which usually develops in childhood and adolescence and the patients require lifelong insulin injections for survival.
* Type 2 diabetes (T2B) usually occurs in adulthood and it is also ...view middle of the document...
* Around 2.8 million people are affected by type 2 diabetes in the UK (90 %). Diabetes is estimated to account for at least 5% of UK healthcare expenditure, accounting for around 7 % of the total NHS drugs budget (Type 2 diabetes). The incidence for serious complication is also on the rise. They are cardiovascular disease (CVD), foot problems (ulceration and gangrene) and blindness in people of working age in the UK (due to the condition called retinopathy).
* The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children ranges from 4.1 per 1000 (12- 19 year olds) in the US to 50.9 per 1000 (15-19 year olds) in Pima Indians of Arizona. Between 8 % and 45 % of children (recently diagnosed cases) and adolescents cases in the United States is type 2 diabetes, and the magnitude of this disease may be underestimated. The prevalence of the disease is increasing in North America and its incidence doubled in Japan between 1976-80 to 1991-5 from 7.3 to 13.9 per hundred thousand junior high school children (these trends coincide with the rising prevalence of overweight and physical).
* The South Asian origin in the UK is six times more likely at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, people from lower socioeconomic groups are also more likely to experience ill health (estimated by the International Diabetes Federation).
* Diabetes affects both children and adults. Around 300, 000 people have this disease in Sweden. Diabetes entails everyday problems and can lead to an impaired quality of life as a consequence. Its risk of complication is large and its life expectancy is shorter than among the rest of the populations. In the past years the media expressed apprehension regarding a ‘’diabetes explosion’’ in consequence of increased obesity.
* The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast growing global problem with huge social, health and economic consequences. It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (apparently 6.4 % of the adult population) suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. An ageing population and obesity are the two main reasons for the increase. Furthermore it has been shown that almost 50% of putative diabetes are not diagnosed until 10 years after the onset of the disease hence the real prevalence of global diabetes must be astronomically high. This essay elaborates the clinical features, complications, management and recommendations for the diabetes which has become a public health emergency.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D):
It is associated with obesity and decreased physical activity, and unhealthy diets. It occurs in individuals with hypertension, dyslipidemia (abnormal cholesterol profile) and central obesity and hence it is a component of metabolic syndrome.
It often runs in the females and is a complex disease caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as environmental factors.