ESSAY title: “What is Management: is it an Art or a Science?”
Number of words: 1860
What is Management? Is it an Art or a Science?
The objective of this essay is to settle the old argument that whether management is an art or a science. It aims to give a deeper and brief view about the topic of ‘Management’ and the point to which management fulfills the criteria for being a science as well as an art have been outlined. Management characteristics have been stated and discussed in relation to the characteristics of science as well as art by use of classical theories and principles which were derived by experts who are related with the study of management.
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When the tasks are being carried out, in certain areas managers are the ones who are responsible to find out ways on how the tasks should be carried out in order to achieve organizational goals/objectives. Lastly, the process of controlling and commanding by managers, this involves to ensure that everything goes according to the strategy developed by the manager. The process of commanding and controlling involves the measuring of the recent level of performance and comparing benchmarks, as well as rectifying problems, which may occur, by taking immediate action, which helps in boosting the general performance in the firm to a preferred stage of performance. Therefore, overall management includes planning of tasks, organizing, recruiting & allocating staff (staffing), guiding or leading and having control in an organization (an individual or group of individuals), which was perfectly defined by George . R. Terry, ''Management Is a distinct process consisting of organizing, planning, controlling and actuating; utilizing in each both science and art, and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objectives." (George R Terry, 1877-1955).
The following essay aims to solve the old discussion on whether “is management a science or an art”. Cassirer claims that “Science is the abbreviation of reality; art is an intensification of reality” (Cassirer, 1944, p. 143).
Before the development of modern science in management, i.e. past 1880’s the principal concept was that management is an inborn skill, it was believed that the traditional characteristics, natural aptitudes and inborn talent was what made a person turn into an effective manager. Over the recent years, management is considered to be an inborn talent/skill and also an ability that can be acquired, as Ordway Tead (2001) states “Managers are both made and born.” In organizations the whole process of management are handed over to the managers since management and ownership are considered have two separate identities. This essay is based on showing how the characteristics of art and science related with the characteristics of management by stating and analyzing the characteristics and it will help to find out whether ‘Management’ is a science, an art or a mixture of both’
Management as science:-
The word science basically comes from a Latin word known as “scientia”, which means knowledge. The common agreed definition for the term science is “a systemized body of knowledge that is universally accepted in a given area of study” (Maclntosh et al, 2015). Management is said to be a science since it is based on planned knowledge which is found by accurate scientific findings as well as precise principles. It is a part of the branch of science known as social science. It is known as social science and not natural sciences because management mostly deals with human beings in an organization and their behavior.
The point of science is to explain phenomena. It is mainly based on the idea that...