Iran, Iraq And Nigeria Contrast Essay

2784 words - 12 pages

In this world there are more than 250 countries and many forms of Government have been tried and will be tried in the world of sins and woes. No one in this world can pretend that Democracy is all wise or “just what the doctor ordered”.Indeed it has been said from Aristotle that Democracy is the not the ideal form of government and therefore it is corrupt and just not perfect. Then if Democracy is not a right form of government, than why so many countries in these world including Iran, Iraq and Nigeria are trying to fight through many years towards freedom and democratization?!The recurring demands for human rights, political liberalization, economical development, freedom and ...view middle of the document...

There can be little disbelief that the constitutional revolution indicated a noteworthy turning point in the history of the region. The Constitutional Revolution of 1906 was carried out by a coalition consisting largely of progressive Ulama (the islamic religious leaders), Bazaaris (the merchant class), and intellectuals ( The main stipulation of the revolution was the establishment of a Western-type liberal democratic government which concluded an elected parliament and executive, in which the king was to be a figure posture, as in contemporary European monarchies. The revolution also required guarantees of freedom of speech, assembly, and the press. Despotism and foreign influence were seen as the main enemies ( The advocates of the constitution believed that if the arbitrary rule of the kings of the Qajar Dynasty 1779-1925 were made subject to parliamentary control, then the influence of foreign powers, chiefly Britain and Russia, who stage-managed the Qajar rulers, could be dictated ( Another step in trying to establish Democracy in Iran would be the Nationalist Movement in 1951-1953. Out of this movement a charismatic figure named Mohammad Mossadegh rose out of the Iranian Parliament to lead Iran and later on to become the Iran Prime Minister (Hauss, 2005).Mossadegh's oil nationalization movement saw absolutism and foreign influence as the main obstacle to national progress. Mossadegh was a liberal aristocrat with substantial familiarity in the country's political scene. As the leader of the National Front, he had two main objectives: his first goal was to nationalize the Iranian oil industry and, secondly was to implement the constitution of 1906, thereby judging the Shah’s way of ruling.The nationalization of Iran’s oil industry in 1953 defiantly scared the Western interests. A few months later, Mossadegh's movement was squashed by a British-inspired and American-implemented coup, in consequence planting the seeds of the Islamic Revolution. The Islamic Revolution of 1978-79 came after fifty years of economic modernization imposed from the top by the autocratic rulers. This revolution was also carried out by a coalition pushed of Ulama, Bazaaris, and intellectuals, although in this revolution participation by urban masses encompassed all strata of society.Democracy and freedom are the main mottos of the National Front and the Liberation Movement, and as the revolution progressed, these groups had no choice but to cooperate with the religious leadership taking place. These groups also realized that it was not only religious and traditional groups who participated in such revolutions, but it was also many other modern groups, such as teachers, bureaucrats, students, leftists, farmers etc. They provided these groups with a social force that could balance the influence of such religious groups. The democratic insists of modern urban groups were one of the many more commands during the...

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