INVESTIGATION INTO USING RICE HUSK AS MAJOR RAW MATERIALS IN PRODUCING PARTICLES BOARD
ALHAJI LADAN SIDDI YABO
PROFESSOR ABDU SALIHI
BEING A SEMINAR II PAPER SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY, BAYERO UNIVERSITY, KANO, IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF M.ENG. DEGREE IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
This project investigates the use of an agro-residue material (rice husk) as a major raw material in the production of Particle Boards. Rice husk was collected from a rice mill industry situated at Arkilla in Wamakko Local Government of Sokoto State. Cement bonded ...view middle of the document...
0:1 and board density 1200kg/m3 at additives concentration 3% were strongest and most dimensionally stable.
1.1 History and Development of Particles Board Industry
Some experimental work on particle board production was carried out in both Europe and North America in 1940, but the first plant to produce particle board commercially was built in Bremen, Western Germany in 1941 (F.A.O, 1958). It used wood and a phenol as binder. Work on the technical and scientific problems evolved in the immediate post-war years when Germany was confronted with a serious wood shortage. Urea resins were found to be suitable, and also considerable resin economics resulted from the use of homogeneous, engineered particles instead of heterogeneous wood chips. There were notable development also in the United Kingdom and Switzerland where the first three-layer board was marketed in 1945 (REMOND, 1967). Many wood species were to be suitable. Meanwhile, the possibility of using agricultural residues instead of wood had explored, and first plant based on flux sheaves was put into operation in Belgium in 1947.
Particle board was first made, both in the experimental stage and commercial production, in first processes and the vast majority of the plants operating today employed multi-platen presses. The extrusion process was developed in Western Germany between 1947and 1949, and experienced a rapid but short-lived commercial expansion, for the product was unsatisfactory for many purposes because of it low strength characteristics. As a building and furniture material, particle board has undergone considerable technical evolution.
The industry’s geographical of both production facilities and market spreading all over the world. World production of particle board in 1973 was put at 31,671,000 by the Food and Agriculture organization. The main producing countries are U.S.A, West Germany, U.S.S.R., France, Belgium, and Italy. The rice husk, which is the outer fibrous layer of the rice kernel, constitutes approximately 20% of the weight of paddy grain being processed. The production of over 510 million tons of rice produces nearly 100 million tons of rice husks available from rice mills (Vellupillai et. al., 1997).
Rice is the seed of a monocot plant. As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East, South, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The environmentally sound disposal or use of large quantities of rice husk is a challenging issue associated with growing rice production. Rice husk is an agricultural residue which has not been used as a raw material on industrial scale in Nigeria. The environment is polluted by it and becomes a problem to manage, which is why an investigation needed to be carried out to see if it can be used as a...