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Interpersonal Attraction Essay

1226 words - 5 pages

Interpersonal Attraction

Factors affecting attraction
1. Need for Affiliation
1. Evolution
1. Proximity
1. Emotion
1. Attractiveness
1. Similarity
1. Theories of Attraction

Evolution
1. It is adaptive – perpetuation of species
1. E.g. Men attractive due to wealth, power, social status – providers
1. Women attractive due to looks - fertility

Need for Affiliation

What is?
• The motive to seek and maintain social relationships
• Neurobiology Rowe (1996)
– We’re born with it
Personality affects the need
• Schizoid persons
• Dismissive avoidant styles
• Dependent persons
Situational Factors
• Crisis ...view middle of the document...

• Interpersonal style
o Dissimilar communication styles are frustrating
o Dissimilar styles predictive of break-ups and divorce
• Demographics
o Social and cultural background
o Similar economic backgrounds
• Theodore Newcomb (1961)
– college roommates with shared background, majors, attitudes, values, and political views became friends
• Interests/Activities and Experiences
o Situations that you choose to be in also frequented by like minded people
o It difficult to maintain relationships with dissimilar persons
• Social skills

Committed Relationships
• In committed relationships we choose a similar partner
o Marriage
o Business

Reciprocity and Attraction

How it Works
• We like people who like us
• But when an initial dislike in the liker changes to liking this is more valued than a uniformly positive attitude

Reciprocity and Negative Self Esteem
• People with low self esteem prefer to meet people who earlier criticized them rather than person who praised them earlier
• Persons feeling unlovable don’t expect friendly behaviour
• Result = self fulfilling prophecy

Reciprocity in disclosure
• To build relationship disclosing info to each other needed
• Without reciprocal sharing no relationship
• Reciprocal disclosure builds trust
• Must be a balance in disclosure

Attractiveness and Attraction
Physical Attractiveness
• Attractiveness influences attraction
• Some traits are cross cultural, some culture specific
• Physical attractiveness is associated with other good qualities

Physical attractiveness and gender
• Men more than women claim that physical attractiveness is important in choosing friend, date, mate
• In actual behaviour men and women make dating choices based on attractiveness

The Matching Hypothesis
• People want to date the most attractive people, but actual choice = similar level of attractiveness

Attractiveness and the human face
• Consensus across cultures about facial traits that are attractive

Attractiveness in females
• Large eyes
• Small nose
• Small chin
• Prominent cheekbones
• Narrow cheeks
• High eyebrows
• Large pupils
• Big smile

Attractiveness in Males
• Large eyes
• Prominent cheekbones
• Large chin
• Big smile

Assumptions about Attractive People
“What is beautiful is good stereotype”
– Sociable
– Extraverted
– Popular
– Sexual
– Happy
– Assertive

Is the Stereotype True
• The attractive have good social skills
• Self-fulfilling prophecy

Familiarity and Interpersonal Attraction

The Mere Exposure Effect Zajonc (1968)
• The more we exposed to a stimulus...

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