March 16, 2010
Social psychologists have identified several major factors that had made an influence in interpersonal attraction which is anything that draws two or more people together characterized by liking, affection, respect, or love. Interpersonal attraction has been an important topic of research in psychology, because humans are social beings, and attraction serves an important function in forming a social way of living, which provides security and satisfies people’s need to belong to a social group. In studying the nature of ...view middle of the document...
Such affiliation needs were dramatically demonstrated following the terrorist on September 11, 2001.
Sometimes when anticipating a fearful event, people prefer not to be around those who are fearful. They prefer someone who has already experienced the fearful event and who can tell them something about it.
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, people’s amount of interaction with others did not significantly increase, but their interaction did shift from group and telephone conversations to in-person dyadic encounters. People who seemed to best cope with the stress caused by disaster were those whose interactions shifted from group discussions to one-on-one personal dialogues. (Social Psychology – Interpersonal Attraction)
There is a variety of laboratory studies concerning the relationship between emotional arousal and affiliation (Schacter, 1959; Zimbardo and Formica, 1963). There are only a few reports of affiliative behavior in naturalistic, stressful situations, such as the 1965 blackout in New York (Zucker, Manosevitz and Lanyon, 1968); earthquake (Hoyt and Raven, 1953 and disaster (Latane and Wheeler, 1966).
The present study involves procedures that are analogous to several laboratory manipulations of emotional arousal. Anxiety is often manipulated by threat of pain from electric shocks or injections (Schachter,1959; Firestone, Kaplan and Russell, 1973; McDonald, 1970; Lynch, Watts and Galloway, 1973). Anxiety and affiliation were assessed prior to the event. Participation was voluntary. In common with other field studies, this investigation assessed actual affiliative behavior rather than an inferred need to affiliate and the anxiety-arousing procedures were perfectly credible.
Teichman (1974) has listed situations of emotional arousal in which affiliation is favoured. On the list are objective arousal situations. These are events that are socially accepted as arousing, such as hen there is fear of prospective pain. Johnson and Leventhal (1974) have suggested that subjects will be less fearful when exposed to a noxious stimulus if they accurately anticipate how the stimulus will feel. These authors believe that inaccurate expectations about the sensations are cause of negative responses.
Teichman’s and Johnson and Leventhal’s conclusions it was hypothesized that affiliative responses and anxiety among blood donors would be related to their familiarity with the forthcoming event. It was expected that when donating blood, new donors would be more anxious and more likely to come with someone else than experienced volunteers. The latter would be more likely to have correct expectations. It was also hypothesized that for both experienced and inexperienced donors, state anxiety level before would be lower among the affiliated individuals than among those who came alone.
Two Reasons for Affiliations
• Social Comparison
• Social Exchange
Assumption: People have a need for...