Interkultureller Marketing Mix Essay

1769 words - 8 pages

5. Marketing Mix

Nachdem in den vorherigen Kapiteln die grundlegenden, theoretischen Ansätze und Handlungsspielräume des interkulturellen und internationalen Marketings vorgestellt worden sind, widmet sich das folgende Kapitel mit den Auswirkungen dieser Ausfüh-rungen auf den Marketing-Mix. Unter Marketing-Mix versteht man grundsätzlich die Instrumente zur Umsetzung von Unternehmens- oder Marketingstrategien. Diese In-strumente umfassen die Produkt-, Preis-, Distributions- und Kommunikationspolitik ei-nes Unternehmens. Im Folgenden sollen diese vier Bausteine nicht nur vorgestellt, son-dern im Kontext ihrer Bedeutung für das interkulturelle Marketing hin untersucht wer-den.

5.1 ...view middle of the document...

VIEW steht als Abkür-zung für Visibility, Information, Emotional Impact und Workability. Das Produkt oder die Verpackung muss sich von denen der Konkurrenz sichtbar abheben (Viewability). und weiterhin muss der Konsument erkennen können, um welche Art von Produkt es sich handelt (Information). Weiterhin müssen Produkt und Verpackung die gewünsch-ten Bedürfnisse und eine Gefühlswelt beim Kunden entstehen lassen, die gewollt ist (Emotional Impact). Ebenfalls muss der Nutzen, also die Gebrauchs- und Verbrauchs-bedingungen, dem Kulturbereich zugänglich sein (Workability) (Apfelthaler, 1999).
Grundsätzlich bieten sich für eine Standardisierung Produkte an, die kulturfrei sind, bei-spielsweise High-Tech Produkte wie Heimelektronik, Computertechnik und Mobil-funkgeräte (Meffert & Bolz, 1998). Ausgesprochen sensibel für kulturelle Besonderhei-ten sind Produkte wie Textilien, aber auch Toilettenartikel. Solche kulturgebundenen Produkte haben eine lange Tradition und werden seit jeher in dieser Form genutzt. Dies bedingt auch einen hohen Grad an Identifikation des Kunden/Konsumenten mit dem Produkt. Diese Produkte sind Teil der kulturellen Identität (Müller & Gelbrich, 2004).

5.2 Preispolitik

Die Preispolitik ist aus Unternehmenssicht das wichtigste Tool, da es der einzige Bau-stein des Marketing-Mix ist, welcher Einkünfte beschert. Vor allem für multinational-operierende Firmen ist eine abgestimmte und angepasste Preispolitik eine große Heraus-forderung.
Nach Kotabe und Helson (2010) wird eine internationale Preispolitik maßgeblich von den Unternehmenszielen, den Kosten für das Unternehmen, der Kunden- oder Konsum-entennachfrage und dem Wettbewerb bestimmt. Vor allem die Unternehmensziele und die Nachfrage der Kunden sind im interkulturellen Kontext von wichtiger Bedeutung. Grundsätzlich steht ein jedes Unternehmen vor der Entscheidung welches Ziel es mit seiner Preisstrategie für ein bestimmtes Produkt oder Dienstleistung verfolgt. Dazu kann Gewinnmaximierung, Marktpenetration, aber auch die Projizierung eines Premium-Images gehören. Grundsätzlich sind diese Unternehmensausrichtungen als ein dynami-scher Prozess zu verstehen, so wird beispielweise bei einer Markteinführung häufig auf ein sehr geringes Preisniveau zurückgegriffen, um den Markt zu penetrieren und Mar-kanteile zu gewinnen, um später das Preisniveau sukzessive anzuheben. Allgemein lässt sich festhalten, dass Unternehmensstrategien von Markt zu Markt unterschiedlicher Na-tur sein können. So wird beispielsweise die Turnschuh-Marke New Balance in Frank-reich als Haute-Couture-Produkt positioniert und ein Paar kostet beinahe doppelt so viel, als im Heimatmarkt USA (Kotabe & Helson, 2010).
Im Bereich der Kunden- und Konsumentennachfrage ist die Preisbereitschaft von be-sonderer Bedeutung. Diese wird maßgeblich durch das Pro-Kopf-Einkommen der unter-schiedlichen Märkte bestimmt. Vor allem Märkte mit einem niedrigen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen stellen Unternehmen vor Herausforderungen. Kunden in...

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