Intelligence is a construct, not a thing (eysenck 1979; Humphreys), as a result it is difficult to arrive ar a definition of ability/intelligence. Rather it is defined based on the behaviour that indicates various levels of intelligence. It is quite easy to say what make a person intelligent rather than what is intelligence.
The concept of intelligence refers to a systematic individual difference in the performance of tasks that involves the manipulation, retrieval, evaluation, or processing of information.
Ability Testing – Individual Test
Widgor and Garner 1982 States the measurement of ability represent one of the most widespread applications of psychology in everyday life.
Persons are referred and as such they have their own evaluation, therefore psychological must clearly describe the test results and possible course of action to be taken.
Types of individual tests.
• The Stanford Binet
• The Wechsler adult intelligence scale
• The Kaufman assessment battery for children
• The individual intelligence test as a clinical interview
Ability testing Group
The difference between individual and group is that the group examiner is less involved and the examinee responds to questions and not to a person.
Advantage of group
• Standardization and efficiency
• Objective scoring system /computerized
• Group test are more qualitatively more efficient
Disadvantage of group
• Individual tests allows one to observe how a person responds
• Looks at the number of correct response only, does not measure the incorrect responses
• Some critiques argue that multiple choice questions have little to do with intelligence
Characteristics of a Good Test of General – Mental Ability
1. Broad sampling of tasks: The test should include a broad sampling of cognitively demanding tasks. This may be achieved by including items that tap many different aspects of the domain. Eg. A good test should include items that measure many or all (Verbal comprehension, word fluency, number, space, associated memory, perpetual speed and reasoning....... Thurstone and group factors) A broad sampling of items and subtests serves to increase the content validity of a test of general intelligence.
2. Intelligence Tests are not information tests: Intelligent tests are used to measure mastery of a specific branch of knowledge or of a specific content area.
3. Sufficient sample of items: A good intelligence test should have approximately 12 of each type of test items. It may be difficult to achieve both reliability and content validity with a small item sample. A test that is long may yield better result s, but they are more time consuming and more difficult to administer than short tests.
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children, beginning at age two, and in adults.
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is used as a tool in school placement, in determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay, and in tracking intellectual development. In addition, it is sometimes included in neuropsychological testing to assess the brain function of individuals with neurological impairments.
The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a direct descendent of the Binet-Simon scale, the first intelligence scale created in 1905 by psychologist Alfred Binet (1857–1911) and Theophilus Simon. Lewis Terman (1877–1956) published the Stanford-Binet scale initially in 1916. As of 2004, the scale had been revised five times—in 1937, 1960 (with a...