Ingiltere Tarihi Essay

3883 words - 16 pages

İngiltere tarihi, 5. yüzyılda Britanya Adasına Anglosaksonların ayak basmasıyla başlar. Anglosaksonlar kendi adını verdikleri adaya yerleşip, 6 ve 7. yüzyıllarda birbirine rakip küçük krallıklar kurdular. Sekizinci yüzyılda Roma ve İrlanda’nın etkisiyle Hıristiyanlığı kabul eden Anglosaksonlar, Avrupa’yı da etkileyen bir medeniyet meydana getirdiler. 795’te başlayan İskandinav istilası 11. yüzyılın başına kadar birkaç defa tekrarlandı. Daha sonra Danimarkalı Büyük Knud, adayı tamamen fethetti. Anglosakson Hanedanından Edward (1042-1066) birliği tekrar kurdu. Bunun ölümü üzerine tahta geçen Harold’u tanımayan NormandiyaDükü William, taht üzerinde hak iddia etti. Normandiya kralları ve ...view middle of the document...

Bu tarihten sonra Büyük Britanya tarihi başlar.

On sekizinci ve on dokuzuncu yüzyıllarda Britanya büyük bir sanayi devleti olarak ortaya çıktı. Bunun yanında çeşitli yerlerde kurdukları sömürge devletleri ülke ekonomisinin gelişmesinde çok faydalı oluyordu. On dokuzuncu yüzyılın başlarında Avustralya, Kanada, Hindistan,Afrika’da bazı devletler, Karayib Adaları ve Hong Kong gibi dünyanın büyük bir kısmına yayılan dev bir sömürge imparatorluğu vardı. Bu sömürgelerin bir kısmı 19. yüzyılın sonlarında ve 20. yüzyılın başlarında ayaklanmalarla yavaş yavaş bağımsızlığını ilan ettiler.

Yirminci yüzyılın başlarında çıkan Birinci Dünya Harbine giren İngiltere, harbin sonunda imparatorluğun en geniş sınırlarına ulaştı. 1929-1930 dünya ekonomik buhranı büyük ölçüde İngiltere’yi de etkisi altına aldı. 1922 yılında bir ayaklanmayla İrlanda, Birleşik Krallıktan ayrıldı ve 1949’da İrlanda Cumhûriyeti kuruldu. İrlanda Adasının kuzeydoğusunda kalan kısmı Birleşik Krallığa kaldı.

İkinci Dünya Savaşına katılan İngiltere galip bir devlet olarak savaştan çıktıysa da, süper devlet olma niteliğini kaybetmeye başladı.

İngiltere’de İkinci Dünya Harbinden sonra günümüze kadar pekçok hükümet değişikliği oldu. Muhafazakar ile işçi partileri arasında iktidar el değiştirmektedir. Britanya, Birleşmiş Milletlerin, NATO’nun ve AET’nin aktif bir üyesidir.

İlk çağlardan bugüne İngiltere'nin geçirdiği dönüm noktaları, İngiltere'yi bugüne taşıyan köşe taşları, idari, tarihi ve ticari özellikleriyle bir medeniyetin özeti

Romalılar Britanya topraklarının büyük bir kısmını fethederek 1. ve 5. asır arasında kendi yerleşim birimlerini kurmuştur; ancak; nüfuzları sadece batı ve kuzey bölgeleri ile sınırlı kalmıştır. Romalılar 410-442 yılları arasında bölgeyi terk ettikten sonra, bu topraklar Jute, Saxon ve Angle kavimlerinin istilasına uğramıştır. Bu kavimler Hadrian Duvarı'ndan güneyde kalan bölgelerde yedi farklı devlet oluşturmuştur. Britanya adalarında Romalılar gelmeden önce yaşayan Kelt kavimlerinin kültürünü ancak İskoçya ve Wales halkı koruyabilmiştir. 9. asrın başlangıcında kurulan Wessex Krallığı, özellikle Büyük Alfred saltanatı zamanında bölgenin en güçlü devleti olup, Viking istilalarına karşı direniş hareketinin lideri olmuştur. Edward the Confessor'ın saltanatının başlangıcında (1042-1066), İngiltere Avrupa'nın en gelişmiş devleti idi; bu durum, I. William ve haleflerinin (özellikle I.Henry ve II. Henry) devlete Normanlı askeri derebeylik sistemini uygulaması sonucu pekiştirilmiştir. 12. asra kadar İngiliz Kraliyet ailesi, evlilik yoluyla Fransa topraklarının büyük bir kısmına varis olmuştur. Bunun sonucu çıkan toprak tartışmaları ancak Yüz Yıl savaşlarının bitimi ile 1453 yılında sona ermiştir. İrlanda'nın fethi de 12. asırda tamamlanmıştır, bununla birlikte İrlanda ile İngiltere arasında hiç bir zaman siyasi görüş birliği olmamıştır. İngiltere'de 11. ve 15. asırlar arasında süren sınırlı monarşi dönemi, tarihe kralın iktidarını genişletmesi ve yönetim...

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