Running head: INFREQUENCY OF EXERCISE
Infrequency of Exercise in Americans and its Potential Dangers
MAT 540: Statistical Concepts for Research
Instructor Charles Edeki
October 7, 2013
The issue that was selected for this paper is the lack of exercise among Americans and the potential dangers that lack of exercise lead to. This issue was selected because lack of exercise is putting peoples’ health at risk as a nation. According to research studies, Americans do not exercise as often as they should. Reasons such as work, children, not having access to exercise facilities, and etc. have been given as to why this lack of exercise has occurred. However, many ...view middle of the document...
This study also indicated a pattern of percentages that showed the decrease in Americans’ frequent exercise as compared to the different months of the year. The percentage of Americans that were exercising frequently dropped each month in 2009; however, there were slight increases in 2010 and 2011. Nonetheless, most months in 2012, showed where more Americans were exercising more frequently than ever before. This uptick in frequent exercise last year coincided with warmer than usual temperatures, setting numerous weather records (Mendes, 2013). Monthly averages of frequent exercise in January 2012 were 49.1% as compared to 47.7% in 2013 during this same month. In February 2012 they were 51% and in February of 2013 they were 49.2%. March of 2012 and 2013 percentages were 53.3% and 51.2%. April 2012 percentage was 53.9% and April 2013 percentage was 52.4%. May 2012 was 55.2%, May 2013 was 54.0% and June of 2013 was 55.2% and June of 2013 was 53.8%. Because temperatures have returned to normal in most months in 2013, a smaller percentage of Americans have been less likely to exercise frequently in every month as compared to 2012 doing this same time frame.
Whether exercise is frequently done in these months really isn’t the main focus. The main focus is getting exercise on a regular basis. The physical and psychological benefits of participating in regular physical activity are well established, yet more than 60% of the population in the USA do not take part in regular exercise, and approximately 25% of the adult population lead a sedentary life (“US Department of Health”, 1996).
To promote better knowledge and understanding of the importance of regular exercise, a number of models have been put forward. Prochaska and DiClemente’s (1983) Transtheoretical Model (TTM), commonly known as the Stages of Change model, is an electric model which focuses on the process of change, rather than determinants of health behaviour, to provide a framework for intervention. Originally introduced as a model of addictive behaviours, the TTM has been widely applied to different health behaviours including physical activity, smoking cessation, and healthy eating (Marshall & Biddle; Prochaska & Velicer, 1997; Sarkin et al., Spencer et al., 2002). This model has five stages of change which are the pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance stages. First, there was the pre-contemplation stage which was for people who had no plans of changing their physical activity routine. Second, was the contemplation stage where participants acknowledged the fact that they had no regular physical activity exercise routine; but they had thought about trying to implement an exercise program. However, no plans were put forward in order to initiate the change. In the preparation stage, which is the third stage; the participants planned to implement an exercise program in the near future. The fourth stage, the action stage, is where...