APA Citation Style
APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa.
Reference Citations in Text
In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.
Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.
from ...view middle of the document...
The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty.
Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)
Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)
Specific parts of a source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.
(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)
De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).
If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph.
(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)
REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT– APA utilizes a system of brief referencing in the text of a
paper, whether one is paraphrasing or providing a direct quotation from another author’s work.
Citations in the text usually consist of the name of the author(s) and the year of publication. The
page number is added when utilizing a direct quotation.
Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron
confidentiality (LaRue, 2007).
Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron
confidentiality as two key values held historically by libraries.
Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other
form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological"
(Gould & Brown, 1991, p. 14).
Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative
Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of
the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–
genealogical rather than ecological”(p. 14).
CITING SECONDARY SOURCES -- When citing in the text a work discussed in a secondary
source, give both the primary and the secondary sources. In the example below, the study by
Seidenberg and McClelland was mentioned in an article by Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller.
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis,
Atkins, & Haller, 1993) provided a glimpse into the world
In the references page, you would cite the secondary source you read not the original study.
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P.,...