President: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (2004)
Land area: 699,548 sq mi (1,811,831 sq km); total area: 741,096 sq mi (1,919,440 sq km)
Population (2010 est.): 242,968,342 (growth rate: 1.1%); birth rate: 18.4/1000; infant mortality rate: 28.9/1000; life expectancy: 71.0; density per sq km: 130
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Jakarta, 13,194,000 (metro. area), 8,389,443 (city proper)
Other large cities: Surabaya, 3,038,800; Bandung, 2,733,500; Medan, 2,204,300; Semarang, 1,267,100
Monetary unit: Rupiah
Indonesia is an ...view middle of the document...
Labor force: 108 million (2007 est.); agriculture 43.3%, industry 18%, services 38.7% (2004 est.). Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism. Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver. Exports: $115.6 billion (2009 est.): oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber. Imports: $86.6 billion (2009 est.): machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: Japan, U.S., Singapore, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Malaysia (2006).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 14.821 million (2006); mobile cellular: 63.803 million (2006). Radio broadcast stations: AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998). Television broadcast stations: 54 (2006). Internet hosts: 559,359 (2007). Internet users: 16 million (2005).
Transportation: Railways: total: 6,458 km (2006). Highways: total: 368,360 km; paved: 213,649 km; unpaved: 154,711 km (2006 est.). Waterways: 21,579 km; note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km (2007). Ports and harbors: Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok. Airports: 652 (2007).
International disputes: East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee continues to meet, survey and delimit land boundary, but several sections of the boundary remain unresolved; Indonesia and East Timor contest the sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Palau Batek/Fatu Sinai, which hinders a decision on a northern maritime boundary; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute, culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait.
Dutch Recognize Indonesia's Independence
In Nov. 1946, a draft agreement on forming a Netherlands-Indonesian Union was reached, but differences in interpretation resulted in more fighting between Dutch and nationalist forces. Following a bitter war for independence, leaders on both sides agreed to terms of a union on Nov. 2, 1949. The transfer of sovereignty took place in Amsterdam on Dec. 27, 1949. In Feb. 1956, Indonesia abrogated the union...